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{
    "id": "Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality (book)",
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    "title_sort": "japaneseamericansstruggleforequalitybook",
    "description": "Early overview book for young readers on the Japanese American experience framed through a lens of discrimination and the responses to it. Issued as part of a \"Discrimination\" series on various ethnic groups by Rourke Corporation (now Rourke Educational Media), it was published in 1992.",
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    "rg_interestlevel": [
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        "Immigrant experience",
        "Injustice",
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    "authors": [
        {
            "title": "Brian Niiya",
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    "sources": [],
    "title": "Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality (book)",
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    "modified": "2018-02-28T01:30:11",
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                "Grades 9-12"
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                "Children's",
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            "creators": [
                "Liane Hirabayashi"
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                "Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality"
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                "told from Japanese American perspective"
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            "theme": [
                "Immigrant experience",
                "Injustice",
                "Progress – real or illusion",
                "Social mobility"
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                "1992"
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            "title": [
                "Discrimination: Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality"
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    "body": "<br/>\n<div class=\"rgonly\">\n <div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   RGMediaType:books;\nTitle:Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality;\nCreators:Liane Hirabayashi;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12;\nReadingLevel:Grades 9-12;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Immigrant experience; Injustice; Progress – real or illusion; Social mobility;\nGenre:Children's; History;\nPoV:told from Japanese American perspective;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Limited availability;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:;\nChronology:1860s to 1990s;\nFacility:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n <p>\n  Title:Discrimination: Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality;\nAuthor:Liane Hirabayashi;\nIllustrator:;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:Discrimination;\nGenre:;\nPublisher:Rouke Corporation;\nPubDate:1992;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:104;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:\n  <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://www.worldcat.org/title/japanese-americans-struggle-for-equality/oclc/946608917\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n   https://www.worldcat.org/title/japanese-americans-struggle-for-equality/oclc/946608917\n  </a>\n  ;\n </p>\n</div>\n<p>\n Early overview book for young readers on the Japanese American experience framed through a lens of discrimination and the responses to it. Issued as part of a \"Discrimination\" series on various ethnic groups by Rourke Corporation (now Rourke Educational Media), it was published in 1992.\n</p>\n<p>\n After an introductory chapter on the concept of discrimination and its causes, author Liane Hirabayashi discusses the meaning of Japanese American generations (\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">\n  Issei\n </a>\n ,\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">\n  Nisei\n </a>\n ,\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Sansei\" title=\"Sansei\">\n  Sansei\n </a>\n , and\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Yonsei\" title=\"Yonsei\">\n  Yonsei\n </a>\n ) before delving into the history. She spends two chapters on the Issei period, one on the World War II years, and two chapters on the postwar years. Chapters on the \"\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Model_minority\" title=\"Model minority\">\n  model minority\n </a>\n \" stereotype and on notable Japanese Americans end the book. A detailed timeline, annotated lists of books and films/videos, and an index comprise the appendices. Though condensed into one chapter, the World War II treatment is fairly thorough, covering the road to exclusion, life in the concentration camps,\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Japanese_Americans_in_military_during_World_War_II\" title=\"Japanese Americans in military during World War II\">\n  Japanese American military service\n </a>\n , resistance, and Hawai'i.\n</p>\n<p>\n While the research is unusually thorough for a children's book, there are many small errors in the text. Among the more substantial: writing that the\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n  War Relocation Authority\n </a>\n (WRA) was responsible for designing \"a program to evacuate people from the military areas\" and establishing the \"\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Assembly_centers\" title=\"Assembly centers\">\n  assembly centers\n </a>\n \" (page 45–46; these duties were performed by the U.S. Army, through its\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Wartime_Civil_Control_Administration\" title=\"Wartime Civil Control Administration\">\n  Wartime Civil Control Administration\n </a>\n ); a claim that the 1924 \"Japanese Nationality Act renounced the citizenship of all Nisei\" (16; this is not true, as many Nisei retained their\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Dual_citizenship\" title=\"Dual citizenship\">\n  dual citizenship\n </a>\n , an issue that proponents of mass removal and incarceration would often cite); writing that the \"the California state legislature passed a tougher version of the 1913\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Alien_land_laws\" title=\"Alien land laws\">\n  [alien land] law\n </a>\n \" in 1920 (32; while the 1920 law did indeed close loopholes in the 1913 law, it was passed as a ballot initiative, not by the legislature); writing that Curtis Munson, an investigator operating as part of a secret White House intelligence unit led by\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/John_Franklin_Carter\" title=\"John Franklin Carter\">\n  John Franklin Carter\n </a>\n , was working for the State Department (41); and a claim that the highest wage earned by incarcerated Japanese Americans was $16 a week (58; it was actually $19 a month). Many others seem to be typos or misidentifications: writing of the gannenmono that all \"were from Yokohama prefecture\" (19; Yokohama is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture); calling lynched merchant Katsu Goto \"Hiroshi Goto\" (21); writing that\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Earl_Warren\" title=\"Earl Warren\">\n  Earl Warren\n </a>\n was running for governor in \"November 1941\" (45; should be November 1942); citing Congresswoman\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Patsy_Mink\" title=\"Patsy Mink\">\n  Patsy Mink\n </a>\n 's birth year as 1947 (83; she was born in 1927); calling the\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Japanese_American_National_Museum\" title=\"Japanese American National Museum\">\n  Japanese American National Museum\n </a>\n the \"National Japanese American Museum\" (93); misspelling filmmaker Michael Toshiuki Uno as \"Mike Toshiyuka Uno\" (97).\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\">\n <b>\n  Authored by\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n   Brian Niiya\n  </a>\n  , Densho\n </b>\n</div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n Niiya, Brian\n</div>\n<p>\n Might also like\n <i>\n  <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/When the Emperor Was Divine (book)\" title=\"When the Emperor Was Divine (book)\">\n   When the Emperor Was Divine\n  </a>\n </i>\n by Julie Otsuka;\n <i>\n  <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Picture Bride (book)\" title=\"Picture Bride (book)\">\n   Picture Bride\n  </a>\n </i>\n by Yoshiko Uchida;\n <i>\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Dandelion_Through_the_Crack/Kiyo%27s_Story_(book)\" title=\"Dandelion Through the Crack/Kiyo's Story (book)\">\n   Dandelion Through the Crack/Kiyo's Story\n  </a>\n </i>\n by Kiyo Sato\n</p>\n",
    "moreinfo": "<div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n   For More Information\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <p>\n   Marton, Diane S. Review in\n   <i>\n    School Library Journal\n   </i>\n   , Dec. 1992, 138. [\"The writing is dry and sometimes grammatically incorrect. Hirabayashi overdoes the use of acronyms: 3 different ones appear 12 time in a half page of text.\"]\n  </p>\n  <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.108 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.113 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 316/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2127/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 6411/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1342/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n  <!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:4003-0!*!0!*!*!5!* and timestamp 20180309150831 and revision id 28161\n -->\n </div>\n</div>",
    "reviews": null,
    "footnotes": null,
    "related": null
}