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    "id": "Otoko (short story)",
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    "description": "Short story by Wakako Yamauchi centering on a Nisei brother and sister who recall their father and their family's prewar and wartime hardships while listening to Japanese folksongs. On the longest day of the year one summer, Kiyo visits his sister, the narrator, bringing a record of Japanese children's songs. The act of listening to the songs triggers memories of their early years. Once relatively prosperous, their fortunes turn dire quickly when their father loses his job. He becomes a tenant farmer, but can't make enough to support the family. Kiyo recalls a time when he went with his father to visit a friend, Kiyo thinks, to ask to borrow money. The narrator recalls working as a \"school girl\" with a white family for a few months, returning to find her family living in a tent, her little sister's teeth rotting, and her father suffering from a stomach ailment. Later, they live in a boarding house, where her mother cooks for the tenants; the narrator recounts an attempted sexual assault by one of them. Their parents' dream of returning to Japan are dashed forever by the family's wartime incarceration as Japanese Americans. While the narrator leaves camp early to work in Chicago and Kiyo ends up in Tule Lake, one of the Nisei who renounces his citizenship, their father dies in camp just prior to the camp's closing after the end of the war.",
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        "Disillusionment and dreams",
        "Growing up – pain or pleasure",
        "Immigrant experience",
        "Loss of innocence",
        "Role of men",
        "Vulnerability of the meek"
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    "authors": [
        {
            "title": "Brian Niiya",
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    "title": "Otoko (short story)",
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    "modified": "2018-03-07T20:38:11",
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            "author": [
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                "1980"
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            "title": [
                "Otoko"
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                "Loss of innocence",
                "Role of men",
                "Vulnerability of the meek"
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            "geography": [
                "Imperial County, California"
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                "Some sexual content"
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    "body": "<br/>\n<div class=\"rgonly\">\n <div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   RGMediaType:short stories;\nTitle:Otoko;\nCreators:Wakako Yamauchi;\nInterestLevel:Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Disillusionment and dreams; Growing up – pain or pleasure; Immigrant experience; Loss of innocence; Role of men; Vulnerability of the meek;\nGenre:Historical Fiction;\nPoV:A Nisei adult woman recalls her early years;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Widely available;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:Some sexual content;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:Imperial County, California;\nChronology:1940s;\nFacility:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n</div>\n<div id=\"databox-Articles\" style=\"display:none;\">\n <p>\n  Author:Wakako Yamauchi;\nTitle:Otoko;\nPubName:;\nPubDate:1980;\nPubDetails:;\nDOI:;\nWebsite:;\n </p>\n</div>\n<p>\n Short story by Wakako Yamauchi centering on a\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Nisei\" title=\"Nisei\">\n  Nisei\n </a>\n brother and sister who recall their father and their family's prewar and wartime hardships while listening to Japanese folksongs. On the longest day of the year one summer, Kiyo visits his sister, the narrator, bringing a record of Japanese children's songs. The act of listening to the songs triggers memories of their early years. Once relatively prosperous, their fortunes turn dire quickly when their father loses his job. He becomes a tenant farmer, but can't make enough to support the family. Kiyo recalls a time when he went with his father to visit a friend, Kiyo thinks, to ask to borrow money. The narrator recalls working as a \"school girl\" with a white family for a few months, returning to find her family living in a tent, her little sister's teeth rotting, and her father suffering from a stomach ailment. Later, they live in a boarding house, where her mother cooks for the tenants; the narrator recounts an attempted sexual assault by one of them. Their parents' dream of returning to Japan are dashed forever by the family's wartime incarceration as Japanese Americans. While the narrator leaves camp early to work in\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Resettlement_in_Chicago\" title=\"Resettlement in Chicago\">\n  Chicago\n </a>\n and Kiyo ends up in\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Tule_Lake\" title=\"Tule Lake\">\n  Tule Lake\n </a>\n , one of the Nisei who\n <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Renunciation_of_citizenship\" title=\"Renunciation of citizenship\">\n  renounces his citizenship\n </a>\n , their father dies in camp just prior to the camp's closing after the end of the war.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"Otoko\" was originally published in the 1980 holiday edition of the\n <i>\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Rafu_Shimpo_(newspaper)\" title=\"Rafu Shimpo (newspaper)\">\n   Rafu Shimpo\n  </a>\n </i>\n . It was reprinted in a slightly different from in Yamauchi's first anthology,\n <i>\n  Songs My Mother Taught Me: Stories, Plays, and Memoir\n </i>\n in 1994.\n</p>\n<div id=\"authorByline\">\n <b>\n  Authored by\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n   Brian Niiya\n  </a>\n  , Densho\n </b>\n</div>\n<div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n Niiya, Brian\n</div>\n<p>\n Might also like \"\n <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Las Vegas Charley (short story)\" title=\"Las Vegas Charley (short story)\">\n  Las Vegas Charley\n </a>\n \" by Hisaye Yamamoto; \"\n <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Memories of Pop (short story)\" title=\"Memories of Pop (short story)\">\n  Memories of Pop\n </a>\n \" by Jiro Saito; \"\n <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The Legacy of a Cemetery (short story)\" title=\"The Legacy of a Cemetery (short story)\">\n  The Legacy of a Cemetery\n </a>\n \" by Joe Oyama\n</p>\n",
    "moreinfo": "<div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n   For More Information\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <p>\n   Yamauchi, Wakako. \"Otoko.\"\n   <i>\n    Rafu Shimpo\n   </i>\n   , Dec. 20, 1980, 9–10, 17, 28, 33. Reprinted in Wakako Yamauchi,\n   <i>\n    Songs My Mother Taught Me: Stories, Plays, and Memoir\n   </i>\n   , edited and with an introduction by Garrett Hongo, afterword by Valerie Milner (New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1994): 237–44.\n  </p>\n  <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCPU time usage: 0.080 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.086 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 220/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 1463/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 4813/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1032/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n  <!-- Saved in parser cache with key mediawiki:pcache:idhash:3704-0!*!0!*!*!5!* and timestamp 20180309151220 and revision id 28857\n -->\n </div>\n</div>",
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}