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            "description": "Filmmaker Vanessa Yuille goes to visit the Heart Mountain site, where her mother was born, to learn more about its history. Through interviews with former inmates—particularly Bacon Sakatani—and local residents and experts, she provides an overview of the mass removal and incarceration and of life at Heart Mountain. We also see LaDonna Zall, acting curator at the Heart Mountain Interpretive Center, lead tour of the site as it is today. The film concludes with Sakatani leading what looks like a local community meeting in a discussion about whether the camp should be called a \"concentration camp.\"",
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                "Power of the past",
                "Power of words"
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            "id": "A Century of Change: The Memoirs of Nellie Yae Sumiye Nakamura from 1902 to 2002 (book)",
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            "description": "The recollections of a Nisei woman, from her childhood in the Santa Clara Valley, to her marriage, her family's incarceration at Santa Anita and Heart Mountain, and their efforts to rebuild their lives back in California after the war ended.",
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            "description": "Film that tells the story of the 100th Infantry Battalion and 442nd Regimental Combat Team through historical footage (including clips from the movie Go for Broke!), still photographs and interview with many Nisei veterans, their white commanders, and others tied to the story. American at Heart covers the origin of the units in Hawai'i and Washington, DC, basic training in Camps McCoy and Shelby, their experiences in combat in Europe, and their return to the Hawai'i and the continental U.S. after the war. The film also contrasts the experience of Japanese Americans in Hawai'i vs. those on the West Coast, outlining the mass forced removal and incarceration of the latter. Among those interviewed are General Mark Clark, the World War II commander of the Fifth Army and 15th Army Group in Europe, who discusses what he calls \"the wrong decision\" to send Japanese Americans to \"concentration camps\" and his attempts to convince General John DeWitt to rescind his decision to do so, as well as his glowing descriptions of the Nisei units in combat; Senators Spark Matsunaga and Daniel Inouye on their experiences as members of the 100th and 442nd respectively; and Shig Doi, who takes part in the rescue of the Lost Battalion, only to hear of \"night riders\" attacking his family upon their return to their farm in California. The film ends with scenes from the exhibition A More Perfect Union at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.",
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                "Heroism - real and perceived",
                "War - glory, necessity, pain, tragedy"
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            "id": "Barbed Wire Baseball (book)",
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            "description": "Children's picture book by Marissa Moss with illustrations by Yuko Shimizu that focuses on the true story of Kenichi Zenimura, an Issei baseball pioneer who builds a baseball field in the Gila River concentration camp.",
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            "description": "A 2007 feature film directed by Desmond Nakano that is based on true events that occurred at Topaz, an American concentration camp in Utah which held thousands of Japanese Americans during World War II. The film's story focuses on the Nomura family, whose mother and father are both Issei, and their two Nisei children, Lane and Lyle. Following the signing of Executive Order 9066 in February 1942, the Nomuras, along with over 120,000 other Japanese living on the West Coast, are forced into desolate government camps across the country. To boost the morale of the younger inmates and help build a sense of community, Mr. Nomura, who was once a professional baseball player, forms an in-camp league within the concentration camp, in an attempt to to instill some sense of normality into their lives.",
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            "id": "An American Story: World War II Stories of the Tragedy and Triumph of Our Japanese-American Community During Wartime (film)",
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            "description": "Video on the World War II odyssey of Japanese Americans from the Watsonville area based on interviews with survivors of that time. The video was part of a larger project that also included a curriculum guide/lesson plan kit for teachers and an interactive video kiosk available for display by community organizations. The project was sponsored by the Watsonville Public Library and Watsonville-Santa Cruz chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League and funded by a $14,000 grant from the California Civil Liberties Public Education Program. The film's premiere screening took place on August 27, 2011.[1]",
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            "id": "A Taste for Strawberries: The Independent Journey of Nisei Farmer Manabi Hirasaki (book)",
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            "title_sort": "atasteforstrawberriestheindependentjourneyofniseifarmermanabihirasakibook",
            "description": "The memoir of Manabi Hirasaki, a successful Nisei farmer, with reflections on experiences ranging from his childhood working on his father's farms, his family's \"voluntary evacuation\" to Grand Junction, Colorado, voluntary service in the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, and his successes in the strawberry industry after World War II.",
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            "id": "American Sons (film)",
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            "description": "Docudrama by Steven Okazaki about four Asian American male characters talking about the role of race in their lives. Though played by actors, the words spoken by each character come from interviews with real people.",
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                "Quest for discovery",
                "Role of men"
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            "id": "The Art of Gaman: The Story Behind the Objects (film)",
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            "description": "A short documentary film created by Rick Quan in 2010 to accompany the traveling exhibition, The Art of Gaman: Arts and Crafts from the Japanese American Internment Camps, 1942-1946 which features arts and crafts created by Japanese American internees while living in World War II concentration camps. The film includes stories about the inmates who created the objects included in the exhibition, as told by their children and grandchildren. It also includes an interview with the exhibition's curator, Delphine Hirasuna, who describes The Art of Gaman's purpose of celebrating the unique talents of these camp artists and helping people understand the larger story of the Japanese American mass confinement. The DVD release also includes Voices Long Silent, a 1980 short film by Bob Matsumoto, that was also shown in conjunction with The Art of Gaman exhibition.",
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                "Grades 9-12",
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                "Will to survive"
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            "id": "The Art of Living: Japanese American Creative Experience at Rohwer (exhibition)",
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            "description": "Exhibition of art objects created by Japanese Americans in Rohwer. Mounted in 2011 by the Butler Center for Arkansas Studies, the exhibition was based on the collection of Mabel Rose Jamison Vogel, an art teacher at Rohwer. Vogel bequeathed the objects to McGehee, Arkansas, Mayor Rosalie Santine Gould, who in turn donated the collection to the Butler Center in 2010. The Art of Living included about 125 pieces, ranging from fashion sketches to bird pins to paintings in a wide variety of styles, augmented by photographs of the camp and interview segments with former Rohwer inmates. The project also includes an online version of the exhibition. Among the public programs tied to the exhibition's run were talks by Delphine Hirasuna, author of The Art of Gaman and by Vivienne Schiffer, daughter of Gould and author of the novel Camp Nine, which is set in a Rohwer-like concentration camp.",
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                "Grades 6-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
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                "Expression through art",
                "Displacement"
            ],
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                "Available"
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        },
        {
            "id": "Burma Rifles: A Story of Merrill's Marauders (book)",
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            "description": "Book for young readers by Frank Bonham centering on a Nisei intelligence soldier in Burma during World War II. Published in 1960, it is among the first children's books to depict the wartime incarceration of Japanese Americans.",
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                "Injustice",
                "Vulnerability of the strong",
                "War – glory, necessity, pain, tragedy"
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                "Grades 9-12"
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            "id": "Beacon Hill Boys (book)",
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            "description": "Novel for young adults by Ken Mochizuki about a Sansei teenager's quest for identity and meaning in 1972 Seattle.",
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                "Convention and rebellion",
                "Family – blessing or curse",
                "Growing up – pain or pleasure",
                "Identity crisis",
                "Power of tradition"
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            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 7-8"
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            "id": "The Brighter Side of Dark: Toyo Miyatake, 1895-1979 (film)",
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            "description": "A 1996 short documentary film by Robert Nakamura about the life and career of Los Angeles photographer Toyo Miyatake. Through Miyatake's personal and artistic life (he was very much engaged with other modernists of the 1920s and '30s), the film reveals the vibrant artistic and intellectual milieu of Los Angeles's Little Tokyo district prior to World War II as well as the impact Executive Order 9066 and Miyatake's wartime incarceration had on his artistic career. Using a camera lens that he smuggled into the camp at Manzanar where he was incarcerated, Miyatake reconstructed a camera and eventually became the official camp photographer, producing iconic images of camp life and the landscape of the Eastern Sierras. After the war, Miyatake was able to reconstruct his photography business and resume work at his studio in Little Tokyo. For generations, he was the community's most trusted portrait photographer, enlisted for weddings, graduations, and other celebratory milestones in the lives of Japanese Americans.",
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                "Expression through art",
                "Immigrant experience"
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        },
        {
            "id": "The Boy from Nebraska (book)",
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            "title_sort": "boyfromnebraska",
            "description": "Brief biography of Ben Kuroki, Nisei war hero, by Ralph G. Martin and published in late 1946 when Kuroki was arguably the best known Japanese American.",
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        {
            "id": "Chrysanthemums and Salt (film)",
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            "description": "Documentary film by Dianne Fukami on the Japanese American community in San Mateo, California, from its late 1800s origins to the outbreak of World War II. As hinted at by the film's title, Chrysanthemums and Salt largely focuses on two of the major industries that employed Japanese Americans before the war, growing and marketing chrysanthemums and salt companies that took advantage of the region's natural suitability for salt evaporation ponds. The film also covers Japanese American community life, the role of the churches and the outbreak of World War II and the reaction to the subsequent forced removal. Chrysanthemums and Salt is notable for including interviews with several Issei, conducted in Japanese with translated voiceovers. \"Host\" Jane Yanehiro narrates the film and also appears on camera.",
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                "Importance of community",
                "Self-reliance"
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        },
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            "id": "City in the Sun (book)",
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            "description": "1946 novel by Karon Kehoe that represented the first full-length work of adult fiction to dramatize Japanese American confinement.",
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                "Displacement",
                "Evils of racism"
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                "Adult"
            ],
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            "id": "Chicago Goes to War, 1941-1945 (exhibition)",
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            "description": "1992–93 exhibition at the Chicago Historical Society on the impact of World War II on Chicago. Among the topics covered in the exhibition is the resettlement in the Chicago area of Japanese Americans from wartime concentration camps. It was one of several major local exhibitions that appeared around the 50th anniversary of World War II and that included aspects of the local Japanese American story.",
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            "id": "Desert Exile (book)",
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            "description": "Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese-American Family is an autobiography by noted children's book author Yoshiko Uchida that chronicles her experiences in the years before and during her incarceration in an American concentration camp during World War II. It was originally published in 1982 by the University of Washington Press and reissued with a new introduction by Traise Yamamoto in 2015.",
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            ],
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                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
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                "Biography",
                "Non fiction"
            ],
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                "Injustice",
                "Displacement",
                "Evils of racism"
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                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
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        {
            "id": "Diamonds in the Rough (film)",
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                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Diamonds%20in%20the%20Rough%20(film)/"
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            "title_sort": "diamondsintheroughfilm",
            "description": "Documentary film on Japanese American baseball that focuses on Kenichi Zenimura (1900–68), a pioneering Issei baseball player and coach in Hawai'i and in Fresno, California. The film includes four main sections. The first looks at Zenimura's prewar baseball exploits, and by extension, Japanese American baseball in general, featuring interviews with those who played with or against him. The next focuses on the World War II incarceration that saw Zenimura and his family sent to the Gila River, Arizona, concentration camp, where he famously built a baseball field. Next, the film looks at the postwar phenomenon of Nisei players going to Japan and becoming stars in the Japanese major leagues, focusing on the most prominent such player, Wally Yonamine. The final segment sees Zenimura's son Howard returning to the site of the Gila River camp and visiting the location of the former barracks and of the baseball field. Actor Noriyuki \"Pat\" Morita serves as the film's host and narrator, and appears on camera in various locations, including Gila River.",
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "films"
            ],
            "mediatype_label": "Films and Video",
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                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
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                "Power of the past",
                "Role of men"
            ],
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            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ]
        },
        {
            "id": "Day of Independence (film)",
            "doctype": "articles",
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                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Day%20of%20Independence%20(film)/"
            },
            "title_sort": "dayofindependencefilm",
            "description": "A 2003 short dramatic film about one Japanese American family's World War II experience in an American concentration camp, told through the narration of a young baseball player, whose life is traumatically altered by the forced removal and his father's decision to expatriate back to Japan. The screenplay is based on the real-life experiences of playwright and executive producer Tim Toyama's family and adapted from a play Toyama wrote entitled \"Independence Day\".",
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                "films"
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                "Grades 6-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
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                "Drama"
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                "Coming of age",
                "Family - blessing or curse",
                "Self-reliance"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Available"
            ]
        },
        {
            "id": "Dust of Eden (book)",
            "doctype": "articles",
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                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Dust%20of%20Eden%20(book)/"
            },
            "title_sort": "dustofedenbook",
            "description": "Acclaimed children's book in verse about the wartime incarceration experience of a Japanese American family told from the perspective of a middle-school aged girl.",
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                "books"
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                "Grades 9-12"
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                "Historical Fiction"
            ],
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                "Coming of age",
                "Injustice"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 7-8"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ]
        },
        {
            "id": "The Empty Chair (film)",
            "doctype": "articles",
            "links": {
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                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/The%20Empty%20Chair%20(film)/"
            },
            "title_sort": "emptychair",
            "description": "Feature length documentary film by Greg Chaney that recounts the forced removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans from Juneau, Alaska, during World War II.",
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                "films"
            ],
            "mediatype_label": "Films and Video",
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                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
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            "rg_genre": [
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                "Injustice",
                "Power of the past",
                "Importance of community"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Available"
            ]
        },
        {
            "id": "The First Battle: The Battle for Equality in War-Time Hawaii (film)",
            "doctype": "articles",
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            "description": "A 2006 film by Tom Coffman about the multi-racial group of civic and military leaders in World War II Hawai'i that monitored race relations and supported Hawai'i's large Japanese American community. After Pearl Harbor was bombed on December 7, 1941, the Committee for Interracial Unity and the Morale Section led by Chinese American YMCA Secretary Hung Wai Ching and Japanese American school principal Shigeo Yoshida, worked to protect the civil liberties of the people of Japanese ancestry living in Hawai'i, which ultimately led to the decision against a mass removal of Japanese Americans from the islands. In addition to interviews with some of the key figures and archival footage and stills, The First Battle also recreates several key scenes with actors playing key historical figures such as Ching, Yoshida, and Hawai'i FBI head Robert Shivers. Major funders included Central Pacific Bank, the Gerbode Foundation, the Hawaii Pacific Rim Society, and the Island Insurance Company.",
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                "films"
            ],
            "mediatype_label": "Films and Video",
            "mediatype_icon": "fa-film",
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                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Documentary",
                "Drama"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [],
            "rg_readinglevel": [],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Limited availability"
            ]
        },
        {
            "id": "A Flicker in Eternity (film)",
            "doctype": "articles",
            "links": {
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/1.0/articles/A%20Flicker%20in%20Eternity%20(film)/",
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/A%20Flicker%20in%20Eternity%20(film)/"
            },
            "title_sort": "flickerineternity",
            "description": "A short documentary film from 2013 by Sharon Yamato and Ann Kaneko about the experiences of a young Nisei named Stanley Hayami, based on his diary and letters. A Nisei teenager incarcerated with his family during World War II at Heart Mountain, Hayami kept a diary documenting his life and thoughts in camp and subsequently as a member of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team until his death while in combat in Europe just days before Germany surrendered. Filmmakers Yamato and Kaneko tell the story largely in Hayami's own words, voiced by actor Aaron Yoo, as well as those of his older sister Sach, voiced by Amy Hill. The film includes archival photographs and footage and aspiring artist Hayami's own drawings from his diary, often in animated form. The DVD release of the film included interview footage with Hayami family members including Stanley's sister-in-law Miwako Hayami, niece Dawn Hayami, and nephew Danny Hayami about Stanley and his family's experience during and after the war, and finding his diary in a garage many years later. The title of the film comes from one of Stanley's diary entries. The film was funded in part by the California Civil Liberties Public Education Program.",
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                "films"
            ],
            "mediatype_label": "Films and Video",
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                "Grades 6-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
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                "Documentary",
                "Short"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "War - glory, necessity, pain, tragedy",
                "Loss of innocence",
                "Coming of age"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ]
        },
        {
            "id": "East of Occidental: The History of Seattle's Chinatown (film)",
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                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/East%20of%20Occidental:%20The%20History%20of%20Seattle's%20Chinatown%20(film)/"
            },
            "title_sort": "eastofoccidentalthehistoryofseattleschinatownfilm",
            "description": "Documentary film on Seattle's Chinatown/International District that outlines the history of the area and argues that pan-Asian Americanism makes it unique among American ethnic enclaves. The film includes the story of the mass removal of Japanese Americans from the area and their subsequent incarceration during World War II.",
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                "films"
            ],
            "mediatype_label": "Films and Video",
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                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
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            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Change versus tradition",
                "Rebirth"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ]
        }
    ],
    "query": {},
    "aggregations": {
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                "key": "No",
                "doc_count": "602"
            },
            {
                "key": "Yes",
                "doc_count": "53"
            },
            {
                "key": "Yes, <a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://thehayamidiary.com/2016/03/31/teaching-with-the-hayami-diary-2/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://thehayamidiary.com/2016/03/31/teaching-with-the-hayami-diary-2/</a>",
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        ],
        "rg_pov": [
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                "key": "Japanese American incarcerees",
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            {
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            {
                "key": "Japanese American man",
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            {
                "key": "Japanese American men and women",
                "doc_count": "7"
            },
            {
                "key": "Japanese American former incarcerees",
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                "key": "Told from perspective of Nisei man",
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            {
                "key": "First-person",
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            {
                "key": "Japanese American woman",
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        ],
        "rg_rgmediatype": [
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            },
            {
                "key": "books",
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            },
            {
                "key": "short stories",
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                "key": "curricula",
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                "key": "albums",
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                "key": "essays",
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        "rg_freewebversion": [
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                "key": "No",
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            },
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                "key": "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://americanart.si.edu/exhibitions/online/gaman/index.cfm\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://americanart.si.edu/exhibitions/online/gaman/index.cfm</a>",
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                "key": "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://cgm.nationalveteransnetwork.com/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://cgm.nationalveteransnetwork.com/</a>",
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                "key": "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.joanmyers.com/Whis.htm\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.joanmyers.com/Whis.htm</a>",
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                "key": "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/manz/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/manz/</a>",
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                "key": "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.monsterentertainment.tv/catalogue/jimmy-murakami-non-alien/\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.monsterentertainment.tv/catalogue/jimmy-murakami-non-alien/</a>",
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                "key": "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"http://www.ohs.org/museum/exhibits/what-if-heroes-were-not-welcome-home.cfm\" rel=\"nofollow\">http://www.ohs.org/museum/exhibits/what-if-heroes-were-not-welcome-home.cfm</a>",
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                "key": "Grades 9-12",
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                "key": "Grades 6-8",
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                "key": "Displacement",
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            {
                "key": "Power of the past",
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            {
                "key": "Coming of age",
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                "key": "Importance of community",
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            },
            {
                "key": "Immigrant experience",
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            },
            {
                "key": "Family – blessing or curse",
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            },
            {
                "key": "Expression through art",
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            },
            {
                "key": "Patriotism – positive side or complications",
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        "rg_chronology": [
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            },
            {
                "key": "1942-1946",
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            {
                "key": "1942-1945",
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                "key": "1980s",
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                "key": "1990s",
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                "key": "1941-1946",
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            {
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                "key": "San Francisco, California",
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            {
                "key": "Europe",
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            {
                "key": "Japan",
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                "key": "Seattle, Washington",
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            {
                "key": "Hawai'i",
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            {
                "key": "Chicago, Illinois",
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}