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    "description": "Young adult novel by Jodi Icenoggle written in the first person voice of Margaret Yamaguchi, a high school sophomore and aspiring writer in Valle Verde in coastal California. Her father runs a successful orchard and oversees a happy family that includes Margaret's mother, an older brother Robert, and younger brother Timmy. She has also started going steady with John Wilson, star athlete of Valle Verde High. But her happy life is slowly torn apart by the outbreak of war. As anti-Japanese sentiment rises after the attack on Pearl Harbor, so do tensions at the high school, particularly for an interracial couple like John and Margaret. Inevitably, the Yamaguchis get sent first to the\n  \n   Salinas Assembly Center\n  \n  , then to\n  \n   Poston\n  \n  , while John gets drafted. As family tragedies ensue, Margaret comes of age in the concentration camp, starting a camp newspaper and waiting for John to come back. But will he?",
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        "Coming of age",
        "Companionship as salvation",
        "Everlasting love",
        "Evils of racism",
        "Female roles",
        "Losing hope",
        "Will to survive"
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    "authors": [
        {
            "title": "Brian Niiya",
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    "title": "America's Betrayal (book)",
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    "modified": "2018-02-27T21:20:06",
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            "title": [
                "America's Betrayal"
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                "Evils of racism",
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                "Will to survive"
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                "History"
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                "Told in first person voice of young Nisei woman"
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                "Some sexual content"
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                "Poston (Colorado River) [2] - Parker, Arizona",
                "Salinas [18] - Salinas, California"
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            "title": [
                "America's Betrayal"
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            "author": [
                "Jodi Icenoggle"
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            "series": [],
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            "publisher": [
                "White Mane Kids"
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            "pubdate": [
                "2001"
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            "currentpubdate": [],
            "mediatype": [],
            "pages": [
                "196"
            ],
            "awards": [],
            "isbn": [],
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                "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"https://www.worldcat.org/title/americas-betrayal/oclc/47140596\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://www.worldcat.org/title/americas-betrayal/oclc/47140596</a>"
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    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div class=\"floatright\">\n </div>\n <div class=\"rgonly\">\n  <!--\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\" removed-->\n  <div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n   <p>\n    RGMediaType:books;\nTitle:America's Betrayal;\nCreators:Jodi Icenoggle;\nInterestLevel:Grades 7-8; Grades 9-12;\nReadingLevel:Grades 7-8;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Coming of age; Companionship as salvation; Everlasting love; Evils of racism; Female roles; Losing hope; Will to survive;\nGenre:Fiction; History;\nPoV:Told in first person voice of young Nisei woman;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Limited availability;\nFreeWebVersion:No;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:Some sexual content;\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:Monterey County, California;\nChronology:1941–45;\nFacility:Poston (Colorado River) [2] - Parker, Arizona; Salinas [18] - Salinas, California;\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div id=\"databox-Books\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   Title:America's Betrayal;\nAuthor:Jodi Icenoggle;\nIllustrator:;\nOrigTitle:;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nSeries:;\nGenre:;\nPublisher:White Mane Kids;\nPubDate:2001;\nCurrentPublisher:;\nCurrentPubDate:;\nMediaType:;\nPages:196;\nAwards:;\nISBN:;\nWorldCatLink:\n   <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://www.worldcat.org/title/americas-betrayal/oclc/47140596\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n    https://www.worldcat.org/title/americas-betrayal/oclc/47140596\n   </a>\n   ;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Young adult novel by Jodi Icenoggle written in the first person voice of Margaret Yamaguchi, a high school sophomore and aspiring writer in Valle Verde in coastal California. Her father runs a successful orchard and oversees a happy family that includes Margaret's mother, an older brother Robert, and younger brother Timmy. She has also started going steady with John Wilson, star athlete of Valle Verde High. But her happy life is slowly torn apart by the outbreak of war. As anti-Japanese sentiment rises after the attack on Pearl Harbor, so do tensions at the high school, particularly for an interracial couple like John and Margaret. Inevitably, the Yamaguchis get sent first to the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Salinas_(detention_facility)\" title=\"Salinas (detention facility)\">\n   Salinas Assembly Center\n  </a>\n  , then to\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Poston_(Colorado_River)\" title=\"Poston (Colorado River)\">\n   Poston\n  </a>\n  , while John gets drafted. As family tragedies ensue, Margaret comes of age in the concentration camp, starting a camp newspaper and waiting for John to come back. But will he?\n </p>\n <p>\n  Author Icenoggle (1967– ) was born in Minnesota and grew up in Montana, where she graduated from Montana State University. She writes in the book's preface that she first learned of the wartime incarceration of Japanese Americans when she was twenty-three from an unnamed Nisei friend. \"Appalled\" and \"outraged\" by the story, she was determined to do something, resulting on\n  <i>\n   America's Betrayal\n  </i>\n  , her first novel. She later wrote the popular children's picture book '\n  <i>\n   Til the Cows Come Home\n  </i>\n  (2004).\n </p>\n <p>\n  Icenoggle includes much historical information on the run up to\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Executive_Order_9066\" title=\"Executive Order 9066\">\n   Executive Order 9066\n  </a>\n  and to the Yamaguchis' forced removal, using the device of having Margaret, an aspiring journalist keenly interested in current events, carefully report on what she's read in the local papers. This historical background is mostly accurate. There are however a number of errors or implausibilities in the descriptions of life in the concentration camps. The two main ones:\n </p>\n <p>\n  • Margaret starts and edits the camp newspaper at Poston and largely produces it herself with the help of her brother and another friend. While there was a newspaper at Poston and other\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/War_Relocation_Authority\" title=\"War Relocation Authority\">\n   War Relocation Authority\n  </a>\n  (WRA) administered camps, it was instigated by the camp administration who hired the staff. Published daily except for Monday for much of its existence,\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Poston_Chronicle_(newspaper)\" title=\"Poston Chronicle (newspaper)\">\n    The Poston Chronicle\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  had a large staff that included many prominent writers and journalists including\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Hisaye_Yamamoto\" title=\"Hisaye Yamamoto\">\n   Hisaye Yamamoto\n  </a>\n  ,\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Harry_Honda\" title=\"Harry Honda\">\n   Harry Honda\n  </a>\n  , and Henry Mori.\n </p>\n <p>\n  • As various developments of the war take place, Margaret gets her hopes up that she will be released, but is inevitably disappointed until early 1945, when the family leaves for Colorado. In reality, the WRA encouraged \"loyal\" Nisei like Margaret to leave the camps early; in particular, young people like Margaret seeking to go to college were among the first to leave with the aid of outside organizations like the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/National_Japanese_American_Student_Relocation_Council\" title=\"National Japanese American Student Relocation Council\">\n   National Japanese American Student Relocation Council\n  </a>\n  , some as early as the fall of 1942. Yet, Margaret never even considers the possibility of leaving early.\n </p>\n <p>\n  While conditions in the camps were often poor, they are exaggerated at times here. The Yamaguchis live in a horse stall at the Salinas Assembly Center; while there were such horse stalls at some \"assembly centers,\" there were none at Salinas. Margaret describes being strip searched upon entering Poston (page 115), which did not occur. She also reports that a letter from John has been opened and censored by a guard (146); with the exception of mail coming from internment camps in which prominent\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Issei\" title=\"Issei\">\n   Issei\n  </a>\n  were held, there was no routine mail censorship in the WRA camps. Two Nisei in Poston are killed in Europe as members of the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/442nd_Regimental_Combat_Team\" title=\"442nd Regimental Combat Team\">\n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  </a>\n  , but the timing of their deaths is off by months. One volunteers in February 1943 and is killed that spring (163); in reality, the 442nd trained at Camp Shelby, Mississippi for nearly a year and didn't see battle in Europe until May of 1944. Another character is drafted in February 1944 and dies in June, again not accounting for the time spent in training.\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <p>\n  Might also like\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/The Invisible Thread (book)/\" title=\"The Invisible Thread (book)\">\n    The Invisible Thread\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  by Yoshiko Uchida;\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Looking Like the Enemy: My Story of Imprisonment in Japanese-American Internment Camps (book)/\" title=\"Looking Like the Enemy: My Story of Imprisonment in Japanese-American Internment Camps (book)\">\n    Looking Like the Enemy: My Story of Imprisonment in Japanese-American Internment Camps: Young Reader's Edition\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  by Mary Matsuda Gruenewald;\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Weedflower (book)/\" title=\"Weedflower (book)\">\n    Weedflower\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  by Cynthia Kadohata\n </p>\n <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20201114001849\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nCPU time usage: 0.066 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.081 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 307/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2107/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 7109/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1602/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 3/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 0/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   23.539      1 -total\n 37.15%    8.744      1 Template:RGDatabox-Core\n 30.24%    7.118      1 Template:Databox-Books\n 10.58%    2.491      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  9.30%    2.189      1 Template:publish-rgonly\n  9.00%    2.118      1 Template:Published\n-->\n</div>\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:2964-0!canonical and timestamp 20201114001849 and revision id 28078\n -->\n"
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