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{
    "id": "The Bitter Memory: America's Concentration Camps (film)",
    "doctype": "articles",
    "links": {
        "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/The%20Bitter%20Memory:%20America's%20Concentration%20Camps%20(film)/",
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    "title_sort": "bittermemory",
    "description": "Early film that provides an overview of the wartime forced removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans on the West Coast produced by the University of California, Berkeley in 1975.\n  \n   Bitter Memory\n  \n  tells the story through narration and interviews with former inmates accompanied by archival footage from\n  \n   Office of War Information/War Relocation Authority (WRA) films\n  \n  and WRA still photos. All footage—even contemporary interview footage and footage shot at\n  \n   Tule Lake\n  \n  —is in black and white. Identified inmate narrators include poet and playwright\n  \n   Hiroshi Kashiwagi\n  \n  , Mary Otani, Michi Mukai, and Kumito Ishida. The bulk of the film deals with living conditions in the concentration camps—the lack of privacy, the breaking up of the family unit, employment, food and so forth—along with the\n  \n   loyalty questionnaire\n  \n  and\n  \n   segregation\n  \n  . The film is also known as\n  \n   Bitter Memories: Tule Lake\n  \n  , even though only the last few minutes of the film focus on Tule Lake.",
    "rg_rgmediatype": [
        "films"
    ],
    "mediatype_label": "Films and Video",
    "mediatype_icon": "fa-film",
    "rg_interestlevel": [
        "Grades 6-8",
        "Grades 9-12",
        "Adult"
    ],
    "rg_genre": [
        "Documentary"
    ],
    "rg_theme": [
        "Injustice"
    ],
    "rg_availability": [
        "Widely available"
    ],
    "categories": [
        {
            "title": "Arts"
        }
    ],
    "topics": [],
    "authors": [
        {
            "title": "Brian Niiya",
            "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/authors/Brian%20Niiya/",
            "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/authors/Brian%20Niiya/"
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    ],
    "sources": [],
    "title": "The Bitter Memory: America's Concentration Camps (film)",
    "published_rg": true,
    "modified": "2018-03-01T19:20:48",
    "databoxes": {
        "rgdatabox-Core": {
            "rgmediatype": [
                "films"
            ],
            "title": [
                "The Bitter Memory: America’s Concentration Camps"
            ],
            "creators": [],
            "interestlevel": [
                "Grades 6-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "readinglevel": [],
            "guidedreadinglevel": [],
            "lexile": [],
            "theme": [
                "Injustice"
            ],
            "genre": [
                "Documentary"
            ],
            "pov": [
                "Japanese American incarcerees"
            ],
            "relatedevents": [],
            "availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
            "freewebversion": [
                "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/cabemrc_000010\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://archive.org/details/cabemrc_000010</a>"
            ],
            "primarysecondary": [],
            "hasteachingaids": [
                "No"
            ],
            "warnings": [
                "NR (Not Rated)"
            ],
            "denshotopic": [],
            "geography": [
                "United States"
            ],
            "chronology": [
                "1942-1946"
            ],
            "facility": [
                "Multiple"
            ]
        },
        "databox-Films": {
            "title": [
                "The Bitter Memory: America's Concentration Camps"
            ],
            "date": [
                "1975"
            ],
            "genre": [],
            "released": [],
            "director": [
                "Douglas A. Lee",
                "Yolanda Huang",
                "John K. Yamaguchi"
            ],
            "producer": [
                "Douglas A. Lee",
                "Yolanda Huang",
                "John K. Yamaguchi"
            ],
            "writer": [
                "Douglas A. Lee",
                "Yolanda Huang",
                "John K. Yamaguchi"
            ],
            "screenplay": [],
            "story": [],
            "basedon": [],
            "narrator": [
                "Wendy Chang"
            ],
            "starring": [
                "Hiroshi Kashiwagi (interviewee)",
                "Mary Otani (interviewee)",
                "Michi Mukai (interviewee)",
                "Kumito Ishida (interviewee)"
            ],
            "music": [],
            "cinematography": [],
            "editing": [],
            "studio": [
                "U.C. Berkeley Television Office"
            ],
            "distributor": [],
            "runtime": [
                "28 minutes"
            ],
            "country": [],
            "language": [],
            "budget": [],
            "gross": [],
            "imdblink": [],
            "trailerlink": []
        }
    },
    "rg_title": [
        "The Bitter Memory: America’s Concentration Camps"
    ],
    "rg_pov": [
        "Japanese American incarcerees"
    ],
    "rg_freewebversion": [
        "<a class=\"external free\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/cabemrc_000010\" rel=\"nofollow\">https://archive.org/details/cabemrc_000010</a>"
    ],
    "rg_geography": [
        "United States"
    ],
    "rg_chronology": [
        "1942-1946"
    ],
    "rg_hasteachingaids": [
        "No"
    ],
    "rg_warnings": [
        "NR (Not Rated)"
    ],
    "body": "<div class=\"mw-parser-output\">\n <div id=\"databox-Films\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  <p>\n   Title:The Bitter Memory: America's Concentration Camps;\nDate:1975; \nGenre:;\nReleased:;\nDirector:Douglas A. Lee; Yolanda Huang; John K. Yamaguchi;\nProducer:Douglas A. Lee; Yolanda Huang; John K. Yamaguchi;\nWriter:Douglas A. Lee; Yolanda Huang; John K. Yamaguchi;\nScreenplay:;\nStory:;\nBasedOn:;\nNarrator:Wendy Chang;\nStarring:Hiroshi Kashiwagi (interviewee); Mary Otani (interviewee); Michi Mukai (interviewee); Kumito Ishida (interviewee);\nMusic:;\nCinematography:;\nEditing:;\nStudio:U.C. Berkeley Television Office;\nDistributor:;\nRuntime:28 minutes;\nCountry:;\nLanguage:;\nBudget:;\nGross:;\nIMDBLink:;\nTrailerLink:;\n  </p>\n </div>\n <div class=\"rgonly\">\n  <!--\"rgdatabox-CoreDisplay\" removed-->\n  <div id=\"rgdatabox-Core\" style=\"display:none;\">\n   <p>\n    RGMediaType:films;\nTitle:The Bitter Memory: America’s Concentration Camps;\nCreators:;\nInterestLevel:Grades 6-8; Grades 9-12; Adult;\nReadingLevel:;\nGuidedReadingLevel:;\nLexile:;\nTheme:Injustice;\nGenre:Documentary;\nPoV:Japanese American incarcerees;\nRelatedEvents:;\nAvailability:Widely available;\nFreeWebVersion:\n    <a class=\"external free offsite\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/cabemrc_000010\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n     https://archive.org/details/cabemrc_000010\n    </a>\n    ;\nPrimarySecondary:;\nHasTeachingAids:No;\nWarnings:NR (Not Rated);\nDenshoTopic:;\nGeography:United States;\nChronology:1942-1946;\nFacility:Multiple;\n   </p>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <p>\n  Early film that provides an overview of the wartime forced removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans on the West Coast produced by the University of California, Berkeley in 1975.\n  <i>\n   Bitter Memory\n  </i>\n  tells the story through narration and interviews with former inmates accompanied by archival footage from\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/OWI/WRA_documentaries\" title=\"OWI/WRA documentaries\">\n   Office of War Information/War Relocation Authority (WRA) films\n  </a>\n  and WRA still photos. All footage—even contemporary interview footage and footage shot at\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Tule_Lake\" title=\"Tule Lake\">\n   Tule Lake\n  </a>\n  —is in black and white. Identified inmate narrators include poet and playwright\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Hiroshi_Kashiwagi\" title=\"Hiroshi Kashiwagi\">\n   Hiroshi Kashiwagi\n  </a>\n  , Mary Otani, Michi Mukai, and Kumito Ishida. The bulk of the film deals with living conditions in the concentration camps—the lack of privacy, the breaking up of the family unit, employment, food and so forth—along with the\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Loyalty_questionnaire\" title=\"Loyalty questionnaire\">\n   loyalty questionnaire\n  </a>\n  and\n  <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Segregation\" title=\"Segregation\">\n   segregation\n  </a>\n  . The film is also known as\n  <i>\n   Bitter Memories: Tule Lake\n  </i>\n  , even though only the last few minutes of the film focus on Tule Lake.\n </p>\n <div id=\"authorByline\">\n  <b>\n   Authored by\n   <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Brian_Niiya\" title=\"Brian Niiya\">\n    Brian Niiya\n   </a>\n   , Densho\n  </b>\n </div>\n <div id=\"citationAuthor\" style=\"display:none;\">\n  Niiya, Brian\n </div>\n <p>\n  Might also like\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Guilty by Reason of Race (film)/\" title=\"Guilty by Reason of Race (film)\">\n    Guilty by Reason of Race\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  (1972);\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/In Time of War (film)/\" title=\"In Time of War (film)\">\n    In Time of War\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  (2004);\n  <i>\n   <a class=\"encyc rg\" href=\"/wiki/Resistance at Tule Lake (film)/\" title=\"Resistance at Tule Lake (film)\">\n    Resistance at Tule Lake\n   </a>\n  </i>\n  (2016)\n </p>\n <div id=\"RelatedArticlesDisplay\">\n  <div class=\"section\" id=\"Related_Articles\">\n   <h2>\n    <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"Related_Articles\">\n     Related Articles\n    </span>\n   </h2>\n   <div class=\"section_content\">\n    <p class=\"mw-empty-elt\">\n    </p>\n    <div id=\"RelatedArticlesSectionDisplay\">\n     <div class=\"section\" id=\"\">\n      <h3>\n       <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"\">\n       </span>\n      </h3>\n      <div class=\"section_content\">\n       <p class=\"mw-empty-elt\">\n       </p>\n       <ul>\n        <li>\n         <a class=\"encyc notrg\" href=\"https://encyclopedia.densho.org/wiki/Dramatic_films/videos_on_incarceration\" title=\"Dramatic films/videos on incarceration\">\n          Dramatic films/videos on incarceration\n         </a>\n        </li>\n       </ul>\n      </div>\n     </div>\n    </div>\n   </div>\n  </div>\n </div>\n <div class=\"alert alert-success published\">\n  <p>\n   This page is complete and will be published to the production Encyclopedia.\n  </p>\n </div>\n</div>\n<!-- Saved in parser cache with key encycmw:pcache:idhash:3228-0!canonical and timestamp 20201114001716 and revision id 28619\n -->\n",
    "moreinfo": "<div class=\"section\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n <h2>\n  <span class=\"mw-headline\" id=\"For_More_Information\">\n   For More Information\n  </span>\n </h2>\n <div class=\"section_content\">\n  <p>\n   <i>\n    The Bitter Memory\n   </i>\n   streaming at the\n   <a class=\"external text offsite\" href=\"https://archive.org/details/cabemrc_000010\" rel=\"nofollow\">\n    Internet Archive\n   </a>\n   .\n  </p>\n  <!-- \nNewPP limit report\nCached time: 20201114001716\nCache expiry: 86400\nDynamic content: false\nCPU time usage: 0.067 seconds\nReal time usage: 0.078 seconds\nPreprocessor visited node count: 399/1000000\nPreprocessor generated node count: 2705/1000000\nPost‐expand include size: 8769/2097152 bytes\nTemplate argument size: 1800/2097152 bytes\nHighest expansion depth: 4/40\nExpensive parser function count: 0/100\nUnstrip recursion depth: 0/20\nUnstrip post‐expand size: 0/5000000 bytes\nExtLoops count: 0/100\n-->\n  <!--\nTransclusion expansion time report (%,ms,calls,template)\n100.00%   28.796      1 -total\n 29.31%    8.440      1 Template:Databox-Films\n 27.46%    7.907      1 Template:RGDatabox-Core\n 17.93%    5.163      1 Template:RelatedArticles\n  8.87%    2.555      1 Template:RelatedArticlesSection\n  8.33%    2.400      1 Template:AuthorByline\n  6.76%    1.947      2 Template:Published\n  6.34%    1.827      1 Template:publish-rgonly\n-->\n </div>\n</div>"
}