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            "description": "First novel by acclaimed poet and memoirist David Mura that explores the impact of wartime incarceration—and the silences about it—on a Japanese American family in Chicago after World War II.",
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            "description": "A 1999 novel by Rahna Reiko Rizzuto that follows the Okada family from the 1920s to the 1990s and includes their incarceration at the\n \n  Santa Anita Assembly Center\n \n and\n \n  Amache\n \n as well as the experiences of two\n \n  Nisei\n \n who serve in the\n \n  442nd Regimental Combat Team\n \n . The novel is structured as a series of vignettes told from the points of view of four characters.\n \n  Why She Left Us\n \n was honored with an American Book Award in 2000.",
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            "description": "Short story by\n \n  Wakako Yamauchi\n \n about a divorced middle-aged Japanese American writer who goes to a literary conference in Honolulu where she runs into an old boyfriend from the war years. In flashback, we learn that Sachiko—nicknamed \"Pinky\" while incarcerated in\n \n  Poston\n \n with her father—had met Mitch Ochiai at the camp swimming hole, where she asked him to teach her to swim. They become a couple and continue to see each other when she resettles in Chicago while he attends the\n \n  Military Intelligence Service Language School\n \n in Minnesota. But her father's illness—and eventual death—forces her to return to Poston, while Mitch heads off to war, and they lose touch. Sachiko ends up marrying Joe Noda, her block manager, and settling in Los Angeles. Though Sachiko is divorced and Mitch has never married, a rekindling of the romance in Hawai'i is not to be.",
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            "title": "Snakeskin Shamisen (book)",
            "description": "The third novel in Naomi Hirahara's \"Mas Arai Mysteries\" series finds the gardener/detective back in Southern California in 2002 where he tackles a murder case in the Okinawan American community.",
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            "title": "Words, Weavings and Songs (film)",
            "description": "2002 documentary film profiling three\n \n  Nisei\n \n women who drew on their experiences as teenagers in American concentration camps to pursue different types of creative expression both in camp and afterwards. The three artists featured are writer, playwright, and painter\n \n  Wakako Yamauchi\n \n , weaver\n \n  Momo Nagano\n \n , and singer\n \n  Mary Nomura\n \n . A project of the Frank H. Watase Media Arts Center at the\n \n  Japanese American National Museum\n \n ,\n \n  Words, Weavings & Songs\n \n was produced and directed by John Esaki and was funded in part by a grant from the\n \n  California Civil Liberties Public Education Program\n \n .",
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            "description": "Short story by\n \n  Hisaye Yamamoto\n \n about an\n \n  Issei\n \n man named Kazuyuki Matsumoto, who works as a dishwasher at a Las Vegas restaurant while gambling away his wages. In flashback, we learn of his life story: boyhood in Kumamoto prefecture, then migration to the U.S. where he becomes a successful farmer in Santa Maria, California, and is soon joined by a\n \n  \"picture bride\"\n \n wife, Haru and two sons. But Haru's death in childbirth after the birth of their second son changes Kazuyuki's life decisively. He sends the two boys to live with his mother in Japan and becomes a migrant laborer. At first, he sends regular remittances home, but he soon picks up a gambling habit and the payments gradually come to an end. He later brings his Kibei sons back to the U.S., where they start a new farming venture in Orange County, California, this one less successful. Then comes World War II and the three end up in an Arizona concentration camp in Arizona. While Kazuyuki works as a mess hall chef and comes to be vaguely satisfied with his life in camp, his ambitious older son Isamu volunteers for the army, only to die in combat in Italy. His second son Noriyuki initially decides to return to Japan on an exchange ship, but changes his mind when he falls in love with a\n \n  Nisei\n \n girl he had met in camp. He ends up as a Japanese instructor in the army and the couple marry and settle in Los Angeles, while Kazuyuki gravitates to Las Vegas, where his co-workers dub him \"Charley.\" Health problems bring him to L.A. for care, where he stays with his son's family, though he clashes with his daughter-in-law. Despite his promises, he can never give up his gambling habit.",
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            "title": "Old Man River (play)",
            "description": "One-woman play about the playwright's search for the truth about her actor father's life story. Jerry Fujikawa was a successful\n \n  Nisei\n \n actor after World War II who worked steadily in character roles in movies and television and who did well enough to own a home and put three children through college. But after his death in 1983, playwright and performer Cynthia Gates Fujikawa found a picture of her father with a woman who is not her mother and a little girl who looks like her, but is not.\n \n  Old Man River\n \n documents her search for her father's history, in which his wartime incarceration at\n \n  Manzanar\n \n and stint in the\n \n  442nd Regimental Combat Team\n \n play a key role.",
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            "description": "Illustrated memoir of life at\n \n  Heart Mountain\n \n by artist\n \n  Estelle Ishigo\n \n , a white woman married to a\n \n  Nisei\n \n .",
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            "title": "Manzanar and Beyond (book)",
            "description": "Prominent\n \n  Nisei\n \n attorney recounts his life, including his experiences as the administrator of the hospital at\n \n  Manzanar\n \n concentration camp and his role in landmark legal battles advocating for redressing injustices experienced by Japanese Americans.",
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            "description": "Short story by\n \n  Wakako Yamauchi\n \n centering on a former Buddhist priest whose gambling addiction has turned him into a beggar in the early postwar years. Told in the first person by a\n \n  Nisei\n \n woman named Utako, the story begins with the outbreak of war and the then seventeen-year-old Utako's incarceration with her family in an Arizona concentration camp. The\n \n  loyalty questionnaire\n \n divides the family, as her brother Toshio becomes a \"\n \n  no-no boy\n \n \" and gets sent alone to\n \n  Tule Lake\n \n . There, he becomes friends with Jim Morita, a fellow \"no-no.\" After the war, the family returns to Los Angeles, and Utako ends up marrying Jim; she works as a painter of shower curtains, while he attends college. A couple of years later, Jim and Utako visit Las Vegas. On their way out, they run into the title character, a former Buddhist priest who had been a powerful inmate leader in post-segregation Tule Lake, who has now obviously fallen on hard times. The story follows the couple's two subsequent—and increasingly unsettling—interactions with him over the next few years, which take place as they struggle to establish themselves in the postwar economy.",
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                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Mary%20Osaka,%20I%20Love%20You%20(short%20story)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Mary%20Osaka,%20I%20Love%20You%20(short%20story)/"
            },
            "title": "Mary Osaka, I Love You (short story)",
            "description": "Short story by acclaimed writer John Fante about the love between a Filipino American immigrant man and a\n \n  Nisei\n \n woman that takes place in Los Angeles as World War II breaks out. A part of Fante's intended novel on Filipino Americans, it was first published in\n \n  Good Housekeeping\n \n magazine in October 1942.",
            "url_title": "Mary Osaka, I Love You (short story)",
            "title_sort": "maryosakailoveyoushortstory",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "short stories"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Everlasting love",
                "Immigrant experience",
                "Nationalism – complications"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Short Stories",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-file-text"
        },
        {
            "id": "Old Man River (film)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "15 15/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Old%20Man%20River%20(film)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Old%20Man%20River%20(film)/"
            },
            "title": "Old Man River (film)",
            "description": "Filmed version of Cynthia Gates Fujikawa's\n \n  one-woman play\n \n of the same name about her search to unearth the secrets in the life of her father, actor Jerry Fujikawa. The play premiered in New York in 1997. Gates and documentary film director Allan Holzman filmed her performances during the run of the play in Los Angeles in early 1998. To try to recapture the effect of Fujikawa talking directly to the audience, Holzman positioned cameras on stage that she could talk into and added additional historic photographs and video. Premiering later in 1998, the film version went to play in various film festivals, community screenings and\n \n  Days of Remembrance\n \n in succeeding years. The DVD version of the film also includes Fujikawa's 2003 documentary,\n \n\n   Day of Remembrance\n  \n\n .",
            "url_title": "Old Man River (film)",
            "title_sort": "oldmanriverfilm",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "films"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Biography",
                "History"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Family – blessing or curse",
                "Power of the past",
                "Power of silence",
                "Quest for discovery"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Films and Video",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-film"
        },
        {
            "id": "Ralph Story's Los Angeles: Little Tokyo (film)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "16 16/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Ralph%20Story's%20Los%20Angeles:%20Little%20Tokyo%20(film)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Ralph%20Story's%20Los%20Angeles:%20Little%20Tokyo%20(film)/"
            },
            "title": "Ralph Story's Los Angeles: Little Tokyo (film)",
            "description": "Episode of the popular 1960s weekly television show featuring the\n \n  Little Tokyo\n \n area of Los Angeles. Filmed largely in Little Tokyo, the program covers both the history of the neighborhood and its then current status and includes a discussion of the wartime incarceration of its population.",
            "url_title": "Ralph Story's Los Angeles: Little Tokyo (film)",
            "title_sort": "ralphstoryslosangeleslittletokyofilm",
            "categories": [
                "Chroniclers"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "films"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Documentary"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Importance of community",
                "Optimism – power or folly",
                "Self-reliance",
                "Social mobility"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "No availability"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Films and Video",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-film"
        },
        {
            "id": "I Am an American: A True Story of Japanese Internment (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "17 17/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/I%20Am%20an%20American:%20A%20True%20Story%20of%20Japanese%20Internment%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/I%20Am%20an%20American:%20A%20True%20Story%20of%20Japanese%20Internment%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "I Am an American: A True Story of Japanese Internment (book)",
            "description": "Book aimed at middle school audiences that tells the larger story of the Japanese American World War II removal and incarceration through the experiences of one typical Nisei teenager.",
            "url_title": "I Am an American: A True Story of Japanese Internment (book)",
            "title_sort": "iamanamericanatruestoryofjapaneseinternmentbook",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
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                "books"
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            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 7-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Children's"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Displacement",
                "Evils of racism",
                "Injustice"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 7-8"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Books",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-book"
        },
        {
            "id": "Living in Color: The Art of Hideo Date (exhibition)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "18 18/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Living%20in%20Color:%20The%20Art%20of%20Hideo%20Date%20(exhibition)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Living%20in%20Color:%20The%20Art%20of%20Hideo%20Date%20(exhibition)/"
            },
            "title": "Living in Color: The Art of Hideo Date (exhibition)",
            "description": "Retrospective exhibition featuring the work of\n \n  Issei\n \n painter\n \n  Hideo Date\n \n at the\n \n  Japanese American National Museum\n \n (JANM) that opened in 2001. Curated by Karin Higa,\n \n  Living in Color\n \n draws on works Date donated to JANM as well as works held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Smithsonian American Art Museum from the 1930s to the 1980s. An established artist by the 1930s, Date was sent to\n \n  Santa Anita\n \n and\n \n  Heart Mountain\n \n during the war, where he taught art and formed an Art Students League at the latter. Best known for his watercolor and gouache painting before the war, he turned to pencil drawings while incarcerated due in part to the difficulty of obtaining painting materials while in camp. The exhibition includes several of these drawings. Unlike artists such as\n \n  Henry Sugimoto\n \n or\n \n  Estelle Ishigo\n \n , Date's wartime drawings do not depict scenes from the concentration camps, most being of cats. An illustrated catalog with a biographical essay by Higa was published by Heyday Books, funded in part by a grant from the\n \n  California Civil Liberties Public Education Program\n \n .",
            "url_title": "Living in Color: The Art of Hideo Date (exhibition)",
            "title_sort": "livingincolortheartofhideodateexhibition",
            "categories": [
                "Chroniclers"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "exhibitions"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 3-5",
                "Grades 6-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Art",
                "History"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Expression through art",
                "Injustice",
                "Immigrant experience"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Museum Exhibitions",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-university"
        },
        {
            "id": "Reunion (short story)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "19 19/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Reunion%20(short%20story)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Reunion%20(short%20story)/"
            },
            "title": "Reunion (short story)",
            "description": "Short story by\n \n  Hisaye Yamamoto\n \n centering on a\n \n  Nisei\n \n man named Tak who attends a\n \n  pilgrimage\n \n to\n \n  Poston\n \n , where he had been incarcerated during the war. The story begins with his noticing a striking woman at the reunion dressed in buckskin; he wonders if she is Native American. A visit to the memorial at the site conjures memories of his family's wartime experience: removed from Los Angeles, they left Poston to\n \n  resettle in Chicago\n \n ; his older sister had left earlier on her own to study nursing in Cleveland. He went to high school in Chicago and to college back in Los Angeles, eventually marrying and raising three daughters. But after his wife's death just a year prior, he found himself alone. On the bus ride home, he is surprised to find the buckskin woman on the same bus. She sits across the aisle from him, and he overhears her talking about being twelve in camp and being fascinated by an American Indian man who visited the camp on a white horse that he sometimes let the inmate kids ride. He also discovers that she is a widow. After imagining different scenarios about the woman and the Indian man, he works up the courage to ask her to join him for lunch.",
            "url_title": "Reunion (short story)",
            "title_sort": "reunionshortstory",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "short stories"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Fiction"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Lost love",
                "Rebirth",
                "Reunion"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "No availability"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Short Stories",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-file-text"
        },
        {
            "id": "Sayonara Slam (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "20 20/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Sayonara%20Slam%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Sayonara%20Slam%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Sayonara Slam (book)",
            "description": "The sixth book in Naomi Hirahara's Mas Arai Mysteries series finds the\n \n  Kibei\n \n gardener caught up in unraveling the mysterious death of a Japanese journalist covering the World Baseball Classic in Los Angeles. As in the other books in the series, Mas's Hiroshima\n \n  hibakusha\n \n past and the wartime incarceration of Japanese Americans play key roles in the plot.",
            "url_title": "Sayonara Slam (book)",
            "title_sort": "sayonaraslambook",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "books"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Fiction",
                "Mystery"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Power of silence",
                "Power of the past",
                "Family – blessing or curse"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Books",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-book"
        },
        {
            "id": "Flowers from Mariko (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "21 21/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Flowers%20from%20Mariko%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Flowers%20from%20Mariko%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Flowers from Mariko (book)",
            "description": "Picture book for children about a Japanese American family's World War II incarceration and difficulties in restarting their lives after the war, told from the perspective of a young girl of about nine of ten. Mariko, her little sister Emi, and their parents live in Los Angeles before the war, where their father works as a gardener. When they are forced to leave, he leaves his gardening truck and equipment with their landlord. When Japanese Americans are allowed to\n \n  return to the West Coast\n \n in 1945, the family makes plans to return. However their father finds that his truck and equipment have been sold, and the former landlord is nowhere to be found. The family is forced to live in a government-run\n \n  trailer park\n \n upon their return, and her father is unable to find work. One day, he finds some old equipment in the trash, along with some flower seeds. Remembering the flower garden he had planted in the concentration camp (the particular camp is not specified), Mariko plants the seeds, hoping the flowers will cheer him up. The flowers eventually bloom, coinciding with her father finding the means to restart his gardening business. A one-page Author's Note provides a brief summary of the historical events from the roundup of Japanese Americans after\n \n  Executive Order 9066\n \n to\n \n  Civil Liberties Act of 1988\n \n .",
            "url_title": "Flowers from Mariko (book)",
            "title_sort": "flowersfrommarikobook",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "books"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 1-2",
                "Grades 3-5"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Children's",
                "Historical Fiction"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Growing up – pain or pleasure",
                "Heartbreak of betrayal",
                "Optimism – power or folly",
                "Overcoming – fear, weakness, vice",
                "Working class struggles"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 3-5"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Books",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-book"
        },
        {
            "id": "Heiji (short story)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "22 22/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Heiji%20(short%20story)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Heiji%20(short%20story)/"
            },
            "title": "Heiji (short story)",
            "description": "Short story by Jeff Tsuyoshi Matsuda about a disheveled elderly\n \n  Nisei\n \n widower who goes to a empty field in his Westchester, California, neighborhood every day for reasons that no one can figure out. In slowly revealing the reason for his quest, Heiji Taguma's wartime family history is revealed. His family had farmed twenty acres in the area before the war, but lost their crops and their farm in the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. Heiji's father Masu was among the\n \n  Issei\n \n arrested by the FBI and was taken to the\n \n  Bismarck\n \n , North Dakota internment camp, eventually rejoining his family at\n \n  Manzanar\n \n . But he returned a broken man: while Heiji\n \n  resettled in Chicago\n \n , he refused to leave Manzanar and died there just after the end of the war. Heiji's odd ritual seemed to have been triggered by the death of his wife Keiko, who had once cooked all his meals and washed and selected his clothes.",
            "url_title": "Heiji (short story)",
            "title_sort": "heijishortstory",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "short stories"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Fiction"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Female roles",
                "Injustice",
                "Power of the past"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "No availability"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Short Stories",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-file-text"
        },
        {
            "id": "Matsumi Kanemitsu: A Japanese American Artist (film)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "23 23/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Matsumi%20Kanemitsu:%20A%20Japanese%20American%20Artist%20(film)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Matsumi%20Kanemitsu:%20A%20Japanese%20American%20Artist%20(film)/"
            },
            "title": "Matsumi Kanemitsu: A Japanese American Artist (film)",
            "description": "Short profile of artist\n \n  Matsumi \"Mike\" Kanemitsu\n \n that includes his own thoughts about his techniques and goals as an artist. Narrator Amy Hill provides a brief outline of his life and work accompanied by many photographs and the music of Miles Davis. His World War II experience as a\n \n  Kibei\n \n in the U.S. Army is largely passed over to focus on his postwar art career.",
            "url_title": "Matsumi Kanemitsu: A Japanese American Artist (film)",
            "title_sort": "matsumikanemitsuajapaneseamericanartistfilm",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
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            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
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            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Expression through art"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Limited availability"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Films and Video",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-film"
        },
        {
            "id": "Little Tokyo U.S.A. (film)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "24 24/{'value': 50, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Little%20Tokyo%20U.S.A.%20(film)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Little%20Tokyo%20U.S.A.%20(film)/"
            },
            "title": "Little Tokyo U.S.A. (film)",
            "description": "Notorious 1942 Hollywood movie that depicts Japanese American leaders in Los Angeles as being part of a Japanese spy ring and that actively advocates the expulsion and incarceration of Japanese Americans using actual documentary footage.",
            "url_title": "Little Tokyo U.S.A. (film)",
            "title_sort": "littletokyousafilm",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "films"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 6-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Thrillers"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Evils of racism",
                "Fear of other"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Limited availability"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Films and Video",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-film"
        }
    ],
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