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            "description": "Bilingual memoir by Kiyo Hirano of her World War II experiences as an \"enemy alien\" is a rare example of an\n  \n   Issei\n  \n  woman's first-person perspective of the American concentration camps.\n  \n   Enemy Alien\n  \n  (Japanese title: Tekikoku gaijin) was translated into English by George Hirano and Yuri Kageyama and published by Japantown Arts and Media Workshop (JAM) Publications in 1983. Hirano's Japanese-English biographical account of her incarceration at the\n  \n   Merced\n  \n  Assembly Center and\n  \n   Amache\n  \n  and of her resettlement was originally written as an assignment for a creative writing class at the Japantown Arts and Media Workshop in San Francisco, and eventually published by the organization.",
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            "description": "Incarceration memoir of life at\n  \n   Pinedale Assembly Center\n  \n  ,\n  \n   Tule Lake\n  \n  , and\n  \n   Minidoka\n  \n  , by Mary Matsuda Gruenewald, a seventeen-year-old\n  \n   Nisei\n  \n  at the time of her and her family's forced removal from their Washington state farm. First published in 2005 by NewSage Press, it was followed by a young reader's edition in 2010.",
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            "description": "The memoir of poet\n  \n   Toyo Suyemoto\n  \n  that spans her years of incarceration in\n  \n   Tanforan Assembly Center\n  \n  and later, at\n  \n   Topaz\n  \n  in Utah, from spring 1942 to late autumn 1945. The book, published in 2007 by Rutgers University Press, focuses on the quotidian life in an American concentration camp, while coping both physically and psychologically with the brutality of imprisonment behind barbed wire. The book is dedicated to Suyemoto's son Kay and details his short life from birth in Berkeley, California, to his first steps at Tanforan in a crowded horse stall, and finally to Utah where he developed a serious asthmatic condition and pneumonia in the harsh atmosphere of camp which eventually lead to his premature death. Suyemoto's memoir includes the impact of policies and wartime decisions on her family and the larger Japanese American community, bringing insight on complex and controversial questions of loyalty, citizenship and resistance. She also chronicles her observations of the\n  \n   Issei\n  \n  women and men around her and recounts in detail the ways in which gender and identity evolve and change over the duration of their wartime incarceration.",
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            "description": "Book built around the wartime diary and letters of\n  \n   Stanley Hayami\n  \n  that document his incarceration at the\n  \n   Heart Mountain\n  \n  , Wyoming, concentration camp and his military service in the\n  \n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  \n  .",
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            "description": "Overview of the wartime removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans by Ann Heinrichs that is part of Marshall Cavendish Benchmark's \"Perspectives on... \" series.",
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            "description": "Musical play set in a World War II concentration camp by Saachiko and Dom Magwili. First produced for the\n  \n   Japanese American National Museum\n  \n  (JANM) in 1994,\n  \n   A Jive Bomber's Christmas\n  \n  became a holiday tradition in Los Angeles, enjoying a nine-year run and subsequent revivals in Los Angeles and in Hawai'i. The play was based in part on Saachiko Magwili's childhood memories of\n  \n   Heart Mountain\n  \n  and shares a structural similarity with Dom Magwili's earlier\n  \n\n    Christmas in Camp\n   \n\n  , first produced at East West Players in 1981.",
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            "rg_theme": [
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            "id": "Take What You Can Carry (book)",
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            "title": "Take What You Can Carry (book)",
            "description": "The lives of two older teen boys, Kyle and Ken, alternate stories in the graphic novel\n  \n   Take What You Can Carry\n  \n  (2012) by Kevin C. Pyle. Although experienced a generation apart, the stories of these two teens merge into a complete story of healing and redemption.",
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            "rg_theme": [
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            "title": "A Boy No More (book)",
            "description": "A 2004 young adult novel by Harry Mazer about Adam Pelko, who is torn between grieving his father, who died on the USS Arizona during the attack on Pearl Harbor on\n  \n   December 7, 1941\n  \n  , and his feelings of loyalty towards his Japanese American best friend, Devi, whose own father has been arrested and taken to the\n  \n   War Relocation Authority\n  \n  camp in\n  \n   Manzanar,\n  \n  California. When Devi asks Adam to help him find his father, Adam is faced with a moral conflict: should he risk both his own safety and his friendship in order to do what is right? He is also still deeply affected by the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the urge to scapegoat the Japanese Americans, despite his urge to help and defend his friend.",
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            "description": "A 1955 novel authored by a former\n  \n   War Relocation Authority\n  \n  (WRA) official that tells the epic story of one Japanese American family from California, covering their prewar travails, their wartime incarceration, and their return to California after the war. The book was heavily promoted particularly within the Japanese American community and widely reviewed.",
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            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Fiction"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Character - destruction and building up",
                "Displacement",
                "Evils of racism"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Books",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-book"
        },
        {
            "id": "American in Disguise (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "14 14/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/American%20in%20Disguise%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/American%20in%20Disguise%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "American in Disguise (book)",
            "description": "American in Disguise\n  \n  is Daniel Okimoto's account of his search for identity in America and Japan. The book was originally published in 1971 by John Weatherhill, Inc, with a foreword by James Michener.",
            "url_title": "American in Disguise (book)",
            "title_sort": "americanindisguisebook",
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                "Arts"
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                "Memoir"
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                "Identity crisis",
                "Wisdom of experience"
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                "Available"
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        },
        {
            "id": "Burma Rifles: A Story of Merrill's Marauders (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "15 15/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Burma%20Rifles:%20A%20Story%20of%20Merrill's%20Marauders%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Burma%20Rifles:%20A%20Story%20of%20Merrill's%20Marauders%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Burma Rifles: A Story of Merrill's Marauders (book)",
            "description": "Book for young readers by Frank Bonham centering on a\n  \n   Nisei\n  \n  intelligence soldier in Burma during World War II. Published in 1960, it is among the first children's books to depict the wartime incarceration of Japanese Americans.",
            "url_title": "Burma Rifles: A Story of Merrill's Marauders (book)",
            "title_sort": "burmariflesastoryofmerrillsmaraudersbook",
            "categories": [
                "Military"
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                "books"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 7-8",
                "Grades 9-12"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Historical Fiction",
                "Children's"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Heroism – real and perceived",
                "Injustice",
                "Vulnerability of the strong",
                "War – glory, necessity, pain, tragedy"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 7-8",
                "Grades 9-12"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Limited availability"
            ],
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            "id": "Korematsu v. The United States: World War II Japanese-American Internment Camps (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "16 16/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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            },
            "title": "Korematsu v. The United States: World War II Japanese-American Internment Camps (book)",
            "description": "Book for young adult readers on the\n  \n\n    Korematsu v. U.S.\n   \n\n  Supreme Court case by Karen Latchana Kenney. The 160 page volume is part of ABDO Publishing Company's \"Landmark Supreme Court Cases\" series of eight books.",
            "url_title": "Korematsu v. The United States: World War II Japanese-American Internment Camps (book)",
            "title_sort": "korematsuvtheunitedstatesworldwariijapaneseamericaninternmentcampsbook",
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                "Grades 7-8",
                "Grades 9-12"
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            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Convention and rebellion",
                "Evils of racism",
                "Individual versus society",
                "Injustice",
                "Rights - individual or societal"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 9-12"
            ],
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                "Available"
            ],
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        {
            "id": "Korematsu v. United States: Japanese-American Internment (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "17 17/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Korematsu%20v.%20United%20States:%20Japanese-American%20Internment%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Korematsu%20v.%20United%20States:%20Japanese-American%20Internment%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Korematsu v. United States: Japanese-American Internment (book)",
            "description": "Overview of the\n  \n   Korematsu Supreme Court case\n  \n  —as well as the related\n  \n   Hirabayashi\n  \n  ,\n  \n   Yasui\n  \n  , and\n  \n   Endo\n  \n  cases—as part of  Marshall Cavendish Benchmark's \"Supreme Court Milestones\" series.",
            "url_title": "Korematsu v. United States: Japanese-American Internment (book)",
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                "Evils of racism",
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                "Injustice",
                "Rights - individual or societal"
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        {
            "id": "Gasa Gasa Girl Goes to Camp (book)",
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            "index": "18 18/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
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            },
            "title": "Gasa Gasa Girl Goes to Camp (book)",
            "description": "Concentration camp memoir by a\n  \n   Nisei\n  \n  artist. Ten years old at the time of the wartime incarceration, Lily Yuriko Nakai Havey was sent to\n  \n   Santa Anita Assembly Center\n  \n  and\n  \n   Amache\n  \n  with her older brother and\n  \n   Issei\n  \n  parents. Evolving from captions that accompanied displays of the author's postwar paintings,\n  \n   Gasa Gasa Girl\n  \n  intersperses stories of life in the camps with recollections of happier days with her parents, brother, and aunts in Hollywood, California, before the war. The book is illustrated by twenty-eight color reproductions of her watercolor paintings that depict both her external and internal lives during the war, as well as a like number of family photographs, archival photographs, and photographs of key objects mentioned in the text. Published by the University of Utah Press, the book includes an foreword by historian Cherstin Lyon.",
            "url_title": "Gasa Gasa Girl Goes to Camp (book)",
            "title_sort": "gasagasagirlgoestocampbook",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
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            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Memoir",
                "Art"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Coming of age",
                "Expression through art",
                "Growing up – pain or pleasure",
                "Immigrant experience",
                "Oppression of women"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Books",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-book"
        },
        {
            "id": "Farewell to Manzanar Educational Kit (curricula)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "19 19/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Farewell%20to%20Manzanar%20Educational%20Kit%20(curricula)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Farewell%20to%20Manzanar%20Educational%20Kit%20(curricula)/"
            },
            "title": "Farewell to Manzanar Educational Kit (curricula)",
            "description": "In 2003, the\n  \n\n    Farewell to Manzanar\n   \n\n  Education Initiative distributed 10,000 copies of the\n  \n   Farewell to Manzanar Educational Kit\n  \n  to California public schools and public libraries. The kit consists of the book,\n  \n   Farewell to Manzanar and Related Readings\n  \n  (1998), a teaching guide for the book (1998), a VHS cassette of the\n  \n\n    Farewell to Manzanar\n   \n\n  made-for-television movie (1976) with an additional 35-minute classroom version, and a video study guide (2002). Separate elements of the kit are available for purchase (except for the video study guide).",
            "url_title": "Farewell to Manzanar Educational Kit (curricula)",
            "title_sort": "farewelltomanzanareducationalkitcurricula",
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "curricula"
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            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 7-8",
                "Grades 9-12"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Memoir",
                "Drama",
                "History"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Coming of age",
                "Displacement",
                "Evils of racism",
                "Family - blessing or curse",
                "Growing up - pain or pleasure",
                "Injustice",
                "Patriotism - positive side or complications",
                "Power of the past"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 7-8",
                "Grades 9-12"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Limited availability"
            ],
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        },
        {
            "id": "City in the Sun (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "20 20/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/City%20in%20the%20Sun%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/City%20in%20the%20Sun%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "City in the Sun (book)",
            "description": "1946 novel by Karon Kehoe that represented the first full-length work of adult fiction to dramatize Japanese American confinement.",
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                "Fiction"
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            "rg_theme": [
                "Displacement",
                "Evils of racism"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Limited availability"
            ],
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        },
        {
            "id": "Gaijin: American Prisoner of War (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "21 21/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Gaijin:%20American%20Prisoner%20of%20War%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Gaijin:%20American%20Prisoner%20of%20War%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Gaijin: American Prisoner of War (book)",
            "description": "Gaijin: American Prisoner of War\n  \n  by Matt Faulkner is the story of a hapa teenage boy's struggle living in post December 7 San Francisco, California. 13-year-old Koji Miyamoto discovers that life being biracial (his mother Adeline is white and his father Ichiro is Japanese) is just as difficult inside an incarceration camp as it was outside in the city after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Written for 5th through 8th grade readers, this graphic novel has a distinctive style of elongated caricatures colored with dark reds, yellows, blues, and browns.",
            "url_title": "Gaijin: American Prisoner of War (book)",
            "title_sort": "gaijinamericanprisonerofwarbook",
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                "Arts"
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            "rg_rgmediatype": [
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                "Grades 6-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Graphic novels"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Coming of age",
                "Displacement",
                "Isolation"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 6-8",
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Books",
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        },
        {
            "id": "Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "22 22/{'value': 35, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Japanese%20Americans%20Struggle%20for%20Equality%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Japanese%20Americans%20Struggle%20for%20Equality%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality (book)",
            "description": "Early overview book for young readers on the Japanese American experience framed through a lens of discrimination and the responses to it. Issued as part of a \"Discrimination\" series on various ethnic groups by Rourke Corporation (now Rourke Educational Media), it was published in 1992.",
            "url_title": "Japanese Americans Struggle for Equality (book)",
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                "Arts"
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            ],
            "rg_genre": [
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                "History"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Immigrant experience",
                "Injustice",
                "Progress – real or illusion",
                "Social mobility"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 9-12"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
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            ],
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        {
            "id": "The Nisei Monologues: Children of the Camps (play)",
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            "links": {
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            "description": "Three actor play in which the actors give monologues adapted from actual words of Japanese Americans about incarceration, covering the range of the experience from witnessing Japanese planes flying overhead to attack Pearl Harbor, to the arrests of\n  \n   Issei\n  \n  community leaders, the roundup of Japanese Americans, and resistance and cooperation in the concentration camps. Though most pieces are not attributed, first person narratives by\n  \n   Min Yasui\n  \n  ,\n  \n   James Sakamoto\n  \n  , and\n  \n   Joe Kurihara\n  \n  are noted. In between the monologues are stories from Japanese mythology and statements by various government officials both in support of and opposing the forced removal and incarceration.",
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            ],
            "rg_theme": [
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                "Evils of racism",
                "Hazards of passing judgment",
                "Injustice",
                "Patriotism – positive side or complications"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
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            ],
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            ],
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            "id": "A Teacher's Resource for Farewell to Manzanar (curricula)",
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            },
            "title": "A Teacher's Resource for Farewell to Manzanar (curricula)",
            "description": "This study guide developed in 1999 by Facing History and Ourselves with Voices of Love and Freedom is part of the \"Witness to History\" series that examines a literary work confronting the complexity of history particularly around issues of prejudice and discrimination. It is based on the 1973 edition of\n  \n\n    Farewell to Manzanar\n   \n\n  by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston. In this memoir, Wakatsuki Houston traces her family experiences during World War II, when because of their Japanese ancestry, they are incarcerated at Manzanar, a concentration camp in the California desert.",
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                "Family - blessing or curse",
                "Growing up - pain or pleasure",
                "Identity crisis",
                "Injustice"
            ],
            "rg_readinglevel": [
                "Grades 7-9",
                "Grades 9-12"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
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