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            "id": "Prisoners of the Empire: Educators' Guide (curricula)",
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            "title": "Prisoners of the Empire: Educators' Guide (curricula)",
            "description": "This guide, produced by Random House is for the\n  \n   Prisoners of the Empire\n  \n  series of four books by Graham Salisbury of which\n  \n\n    Under the Blood-Red Sun\n   \n\n  is the first title. These young adult novels focus on Japanese Americans in Hawai'i during World War II. The other titles in the series are\n  \n\n    Eyes of the Emperor\n   \n\n  ,\n  \n\n    House of the Red Fish\n   \n\n  , and\n  \n\n    Hunt for the Bamboo Rat\n   \n\n  .",
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                "Companionship as salvation",
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            "title": "Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story (exhibition)",
            "description": "Exhibition organized by the Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai'i (JCCH) that focused on the World War II internment of Japanese Americans living in Hawai'i. Originally organized in 2004, a later traveling version of the exhibition debuted in 2006 and traveled widely in Hawai'i over the next several years.",
            "url_title": "Dark Clouds Over Paradise: The Hawai'i Internees Story (exhibition)",
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            "rg_theme": [
                "Lost honor",
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            "title": "American at Heart (film)",
            "description": "Film that tells the story of the\n  \n   100th Infantry Battalion\n  \n  and\n  \n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  \n  through historical footage (including clips from the movie\n  \n\n    Go for Broke!\n   \n\n  ), still photographs and interview with many\n  \n   Nisei\n  \n  veterans, their white commanders, and others tied to the story.\n  \n   American at Heart\n  \n  covers the origin of the units in Hawai'i and Washington, DC, basic training in Camps McCoy and Shelby, their experiences in combat in Europe, and their return to the Hawai'i and the continental U.S. after the war. The film also contrasts the experience of Japanese Americans in Hawai'i vs. those on the West Coast, outlining the mass forced removal and incarceration of the latter. Among those interviewed are\n  \n   General Mark Clark\n  \n  , the World War II commander of the Fifth Army and 15th Army Group in Europe, who discusses what he calls \"the wrong decision\" to send Japanese Americans to \"concentration camps\" and his attempts to convince General\n  \n   John DeWitt\n  \n  to rescind his decision to do so, as well as his glowing descriptions of the Nisei units in combat; Senators\n  \n   Spark Matsunaga\n  \n  and\n  \n   Daniel Inouye\n  \n  on their experiences as members of the 100th and 442nd respectively; and Shig Doi, who takes part in the rescue of the\n  \n   Lost Battalion\n  \n  , only to hear of\n  \n   \"night riders\"\n  \n  attacking his family upon their return to their farm in California. The film ends with scenes from the exhibition\n  \n\n    A More Perfect Union\n   \n\n  at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.",
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            "title": "The Silent Glory (film)",
            "description": "Documentary film on the\n  \n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  \n  . Relying on archival and newsreel footage along with interviews,\n  \n   The Silent Glory\n  \n  begins with the attack on Pearl Harbor on\n  \n   December 7, 1941\n  \n  and the subsequent mass forced removal of West Coast Japanese Americans, continuing with the struggle to restore eligibility to military service for Japanese Americans and the military history of the 442nd, and climaxing with the rescue of the\n  \n   Lost Battalion\n  \n  and the movement to award\n  \n   Congressional Medals of Honor\n  \n  many years later. Among those interviewed are George Katagiri, Kennie Namba,\n  \n   George Oiye\n  \n  , and Al Ouchi, along with Martin Higgins, one of the commanders of the \"Lost Battalion.\" Producer and director Zed Merrill specializes in making films about relatively little known aspects of World War II.",
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            "title": "Going for Broke (film)",
            "description": "Documentary film that provides an overview of Japanese Americans who served in the\n  \n   100th Infantry Battalion\n  \n  ,\n  \n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  \n  , and\n  \n   Military Intelligence Service\n  \n  (MIS) during World War II using archival footage, interviews, and contemporary footage of key wartime locations. The film also includes information on the history of Japanese Americans before the war and the wartime incarceration of Japanese Americans and is narrated by\n  \n   George Takei\n  \n  and \"hosted\" by\n  \n   Daniel Inouye\n  \n  .\n  \n   Going for Broke\n  \n  was produced in 2005 by the Go For Broke Educational Foundation, with funding from Farmers' Insurance. The film's tagline is \"They Believed in America, When America No Longer Believed in Them.\"",
            "url_title": "Going for Broke (film)",
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                "War - glory, necessity, pain, tragedy",
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            "id": "Color of the Sea (book)",
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            "title": "Color of the Sea (book)",
            "description": "A coming-of-age novel by first time novelist John Hamamura centering on a\n  \n   Kibei\n  \n  raised in Japan, Hawai'i, and California and that climaxes with his wartime experiences that include arrest, the\n  \n   Military Intelligence Service\n  \n  , and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The book won an Alex Award from the Young Adult Library Services Association in 2007.",
            "url_title": "Color of the Sea (book)",
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                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Heroes%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Heroes (book)",
            "description": "Children's picture book by Ken Mochizuki and illustrated by Dom Lee about a young boy facing Asian stereotypes and bullying in the postwar years. Donnie Okada is continually made to play the part of the \"enemy\" in war games with friends, even as he tries to explain that his father and uncles served on the American side. A school visit by Donnie's father and uncle in their uniforms and medals changes the way he and his friends view their histories.",
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            "id": "Blue Skies and Thunder: Farm Boy, Pilot, Inventor, TSA Officer, and WWII Soldier of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (book)",
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            },
            "title": "Blue Skies and Thunder: Farm Boy, Pilot, Inventor, TSA Officer, and WWII Soldier of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (book)",
            "description": "Mixed race Nisei shares his story, from a tough childhood growing up on a farm in the Midwest to his experiences in combat with the\n  \n   522nd Field Artillery Battalion\n  \n  during World War II.",
            "url_title": "Blue Skies and Thunder: Farm Boy, Pilot, Inventor, TSA Officer, and WWII Soldier of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (book)",
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            "rg_genre": [
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                "Death - inevitable or tragedy",
                "Disillusionment and dreams",
                "Displacement",
                "Facing reality",
                "Family - blessing or curse",
                "Injustice",
                "Loss of innocence",
                "Overcoming - fear, weakness, vice",
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            "id": "Undaunted Courage, Proven Loyalty: Japanese American Soldiers in World War II (exhibition)",
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            "links": {
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            "title": "Undaunted Courage, Proven Loyalty: Japanese American Soldiers in World War II (exhibition)",
            "description": "Exhibition on\n  \n   Japanese Americans in the military\n  \n  during World War II that was organized by the University of Arkansas at Little Rock Public History Program in 2004.\n  \n   Undaunted Courage\n  \n  included the stories of the\n  \n   100th Infantry Battalion\n  \n  ,\n  \n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  \n  , and\n  \n   Military Intelligence Service\n  \n  as well as a kiosk featuring stories of Japanese American veterans collected by the Go For Broke National Education Center. The exhibition was one of eight exhibitions in the Little Rock, Arkansas, area that were part of the\n  \n   Life Interrupted\n  \n  project, a collaboration between the\n  \n   Japanese American National Museum\n  \n  and the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Three of the exhibitions, all on some aspect of the Japanese American military experience, were displayed at the MacArthur Museum of Arkansas Military History, the other two being\n  \n\n    Beyond the Call of Duty: Honoring the 24 Japanese American Medal of Honor Recipients\n   \n\n  and\n  \n\n    Witness: Our Brothers' Keepers\n   \n\n  .",
            "url_title": "Undaunted Courage, Proven Loyalty: Japanese American Soldiers in World War II (exhibition)",
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            "id": "Calling Tokyo: Japanese American Radio Broadcasters During World War II (film)",
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            },
            "title": "Calling Tokyo: Japanese American Radio Broadcasters During World War II (film)",
            "description": "Documentary film directed by Gary T. Ono that tells the story of a small group of Japanese Americans recruited out of the concentration camps to work for the British Political Warfare Mission (BPWM) and\n  \n   Office of War Information\n  \n  (OWI) as translators and broadcasters of propaganda aimed at Japan. The small group—eight who worked for the OWI and four for the BPWM—were mostly Kibei and worked out of a Denver studio. Both groups translated American news reports that were made into radio scripts and broadcasts transmitted by shortwave radio. The operation later moved to San Francisco in February 1945, when Japanese Americans were allowed to return to the West Coast.",
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            "rg_theme": [
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            "id": "Fifty Years of Silence: The Untold Story of Japanese American Soldiers in the Pacific Theater, 1941-1952 (film)",
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            "links": {
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            },
            "title": "Fifty Years of Silence: The Untold Story of Japanese American Soldiers in the Pacific Theater, 1941-1952 (film)",
            "description": "Documentary film that tells the story of Japanese Americans in the\n  \n   Military Intelligence Service\n  \n  (MIS) during World War II and during the occupation of Japan through archival footage and interviews. Produced by the Military Intelligence Service Association of Northern California and the National Japanese American Historical Society, the 60-minute documentary was directed by Sheryl K. Narahara and released in 1992. In addition to providing an overview of the MIS story from training to the battlefield and occupation of Japan,\n  \n   Fifty Years of Silence\n  \n  also includes a section on\n  \n   Richard Sakakida\n  \n  , a\n  \n   Nisei\n  \n  who did intelligence work in the Philippines as part of the Counter Intelligence Corps.",
            "url_title": "Fifty Years of Silence: The Untold Story of Japanese American Soldiers in the Pacific Theater, 1941-1952 (film)",
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            "rg_interestlevel": [
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            ],
            "rg_genre": [
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            "rg_theme": [
                "Heroism - real or perceived",
                "War - glory, necessity, pain, tragedy"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
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            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Films and Video",
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        {
            "id": "An American Story: The History of California's Nisei Veterans (film)",
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            "index": "11 11/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/An%20American%20Story:%20The%20History%20of%20California's%20Nisei%20Veterans%20(film)/",
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            },
            "title": "An American Story: The History of California's Nisei Veterans (film)",
            "description": "Short documentary on California's Nisei veterans produced by photographer Tom Graves. The video was funded by a grant from the\n  \n   California Civil Liberties Public Education Program\n  \n  .",
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            "title_sort": "americanstorythehistoryofcaliforniasniseiveterans",
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            "rg_interestlevel": [
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                "Grades 9-12",
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            "rg_theme": [
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            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Films and Video",
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            "id": "Honor and Sacrifice: The Roy Matsumoto Story (film)",
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            "index": "12 12/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
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            },
            "title": "Honor and Sacrifice: The Roy Matsumoto Story (film)",
            "description": "A 2013 documentary film about Japanese American\n  \n   Kibei\n  \n  war hero Roy Matsumoto and his family during World War II, as told through the eyes of his daughter Karen. A decorated linguist with the\n  \n   Military Intelligence Service\n  \n  who was a part of Merrill's Marauders, an American guerrilla unit in Burma, Matsumoto served even though his parents and sisters were living in Hiroshima and three of his Nisei brothers were ultimately conscripted into the Japanese army.",
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            ],
            "rg_genre": [
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            ],
            "rg_theme": [
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            ],
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            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-film"
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        {
            "id": "Ancestry is Not a Crime: The Internment of People of Japanese Descent During World War II (curricula)",
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            },
            "title": "Ancestry is Not a Crime: The Internment of People of Japanese Descent During World War II (curricula)",
            "description": "To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II, the Hawai'i state legislature funded the development of\n  \n   Ancestry is Not a Crime\n  \n  , focused on the forced removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans. The 192-page curriculum aims to engage elementary through high school students with this complex history, to wrestle with the meaning of democratic principles, and to think critically about civil liberties and the responsibilities of a democratic citizenry.",
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            "links": {
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            },
            "title": "When Military Necessity Overrides Constitutional Guarantees: The Treatment of Japanese Americans During World War II (curricula)",
            "description": "This curriculum guide examines the World War II incarceration of Japanese Americans through the lens of its constitutional merit. It should be noted that it was published in 1982, and it contains terminology that in 2017 is considered inappropriate and/or offensive in the use of \"Oriental\" versus Asian or Asian American. In addition, many of the suggested classroom materials are outmoded (filmstrips) or out of print and may be difficult to access. The guide refers to a \"media kit\" which may have been available when the guide was first published.",
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            },
            "title": "From Barbed Wire to Battlefields: Japanese American Experiences in WWII (exhibition)",
            "description": "Exhibition on the Japanese American incarceration and on Japanese Americans in the U.S. armed forces during World War II at the National World War II Museum in New Orleans, Louisiana.\n  \n   Barbed Wire to Battlefields\n  \n  opened in the Joe W. and D. D. Brown Foundation Special Exhibit Gallery on March 15, 2014, and ran through October 12, 2014. The exhibition featured the photographs of\n  \n   Dorothea Lange\n  \n  ,\n  \n   Ansel Adams\n  \n  , and Bill Mambo along with objects and video interviews. In conjunction with the exhibition, the museum put on a slate of public programs including book events, lectures, and film screenings, and incorporated curricular material and a webinar aimed at school children. The exhibition was funded in part by the the Annenberg Foundation and the Eugenie and Joseph Jones Family Foundation. The National World War II Museum opened in New Orleans in 2000 at the National D-Day Museum.",
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                "Grades 9-12",
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                "Heroism - real and perceived",
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        {
            "id": "Letters from the 442nd: The World War II Correspondence of a Japanese American Medic (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "16 16/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Letters%20from%20the%20442nd:%20The%20World%20War%20II%20Correspondence%20of%20a%20Japanese%20American%20Medic%20(book)/",
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            },
            "title": "Letters from the 442nd: The World War II Correspondence of a Japanese American Medic (book)",
            "description": "Letters sent by a medic in the\n  \n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  \n  serving in Europe to his wife incarcerated at\n  \n   Minidoka\n  \n  concentration camp during World War II.",
            "url_title": "Letters from the 442nd: The World War II Correspondence of a Japanese American Medic (book)",
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            },
            "title": "Prejudice and Patriotism: Americans of Japanese Ancestry in the Military Intelligence Service of WWII (film)",
            "description": "Documentary video that tells the story of Japanese Americans in the\n  \n   Military Intelligence Service\n  \n  during World War II, juxtaposing that story against the backdrop of the Japanese American wartime incarceration, highlighting the difficulties brought on by the\n  \n   loyalty questionnaire\n  \n  and its aftermath. Colin Powell introduces and closes the video, which is narrated by Ken Kashiwahara. The story is told using archival footage and photographs and interviews with many MIS veterans and others. No director is identified. The film was produced and funded by the Military Intelligence Service Association of Northern California and the National Japanese American Historical Society.",
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                "War - glory, necessity, pain, tragedy",
                "Heroism - real or perceived"
            ],
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                "No availability"
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        },
        {
            "id": "Midway (film)",
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            "index": "18 18/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Midway%20(film)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Midway%20(film)/"
            },
            "title": "Midway (film)",
            "description": "Epic war movie that tells the story of the Battle of Midway, the turning point of the Pacific War, from both the American and Japanese perspectives. Made for a modest budget despite its all-star cast,\n  \n   Midway\n  \n  was successful at the box office. In addition to employing many Japanese American actors in the roles of Japanese naval officers, the movie has a subplot involving the internment/incarceration of Japanese Americans.",
            "url_title": "Midway (film)",
            "title_sort": "midwayfilm",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "films"
            ],
            "rg_interestlevel": [
                "Grades 9-12",
                "Adult"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Drama",
                "War"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "War - glory, necessity, pain, tragedy"
            ],
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                "Available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Films and Video",
            "rg_rgmediatype_icon": "fa-film"
        },
        {
            "id": "The Experience of Japanese Americans in the United States: A Teacher Resource Manual (curricula)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "19 19/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/The%20Experience%20of%20Japanese%20Americans%20in%20the%20United%20States:%20A%20Teacher%20Resource%20Manual%20(curricula)/",
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            },
            "title": "The Experience of Japanese Americans in the United States: A Teacher Resource Manual (curricula)",
            "description": "The Advisory Council to the Ethnic Heritage Project of the\n  \n   Japanese American Citizens League\n  \n  (JACL) developed, printed and distributed this manual in 1975. It was one of the first efforts to provide K–12 instructional materials about the history and achievements of Japanese Americans in the United States. The aim of the manual was to counter existing teaching materials which contained information that \"portray(ed) persons of Japanese ancestry in a distorted or stereotypic fashion\" (page 6). In addition, the authors sought to see Japanese Americans represented in the educational system's instructional framework of cultural pluralism.",
            "url_title": "The Experience of Japanese Americans in the United States: A Teacher Resource Manual (curricula)",
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            "rg_rgmediatype": [
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                "Pre-K",
                "Grades 1-2",
                "Grades 3-5",
                "Grades 7-8",
                "Grades 9-12"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
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                "Evils of racism",
                "Immigrant experience",
                "Injustice",
                "Knowledge versus ignorance",
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                "Rights - individual or societal",
                "War - glory, necessity, pain, tragedy"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Widely available"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype_label": "Curricula",
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        },
        {
            "id": "Dear Miye: Letters Home from Japan, 1939-1946 (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "20 20/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Dear%20Miye:%20Letters%20Home%20from%20Japan,%201939-1946%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Dear%20Miye:%20Letters%20Home%20from%20Japan,%201939-1946%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Dear Miye: Letters Home from Japan, 1939-1946 (book)",
            "description": "A collection of letters written by a young\n  \n   Nisei\n  \n  woman in Japan who becomes stuck there during World War II to her best friend who is still in California.",
            "url_title": "Dear Miye: Letters Home from Japan, 1939-1946 (book)",
            "title_sort": "dearmiyelettershomefromjapan19391946book",
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                "Arts"
            ],
            "rg_rgmediatype": [
                "books"
            ],
            "rg_genre": [
                "Memoir",
                "Historical nonfiction"
            ],
            "rg_theme": [
                "Coming of age",
                "Companionship as salvation",
                "Desire to escape",
                "Displacement",
                "Family - blessing or curse",
                "Female roles",
                "Identity crisis",
                "Immigrant experience",
                "Isolation",
                "Loss of innocence",
                "Overcoming - fear, weakness, vice",
                "Self-preservation",
                "War - glory, necessity, pain, tragedy",
                "Will to survive"
            ],
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            "id": "Nisei Odyssey: The Camp Years (book)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "21 21/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Nisei%20Odyssey:%20The%20Camp%20Years%20(book)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Nisei%20Odyssey:%20The%20Camp%20Years%20(book)/"
            },
            "title": "Nisei Odyssey: The Camp Years (book)",
            "description": "Nisei's recollections of his experiences incarcerated in an assembly center and concentration camp during World War II as well as a recounting of various stories he remembers hearing from others both before and during the war.",
            "url_title": "Nisei Odyssey: The Camp Years (book)",
            "title_sort": "niseiodysseythecampyearsbook",
            "categories": [
                "Arts"
            ],
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                "Memoir"
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                "Facing reality",
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                "Rights - individual or societal",
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            ],
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            "id": "The 442nd: Duty, Honor and Loyalty (film)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "22 22/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/The%20442nd:%20Duty,%20Honor%20and%20Loyalty%20(film)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/The%20442nd:%20Duty,%20Honor%20and%20Loyalty%20(film)/"
            },
            "title": "The 442nd: Duty, Honor and Loyalty (film)",
            "description": "Documentary film on the\n  \n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  \n  .\n  \n   The 442nd: Duty, Honor & Loyalty\n  \n  is a English language version of a 1996 Japanese language documentary produced by Bungei Shunju, Ltd. titled\n  \n   Amerika Dai-442 Hohei Rentai: Nikkei Niseitachi no Dainijin Seikai Taisen\n  \n  . The English language script was by John Dobovan, who also narrated.",
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            "categories": [
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            "rg_rgmediatype": [
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            ],
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        },
        {
            "id": "Going for Honor, Going for Broke (film)",
            "model": "article",
            "index": "23 23/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/Going%20for%20Honor,%20Going%20for%20Broke%20(film)/",
                "json": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/api/3.0/articles/Going%20for%20Honor,%20Going%20for%20Broke%20(film)/"
            },
            "title": "Going for Honor, Going for Broke (film)",
            "description": "Short 2006 documentary film that gives an overview of the\n  \n   100th Infantry Battalion\n  \n  and\n  \n   442nd Regimental Combat Team\n  \n  . Produced, written, directed, narrated & edited by George Toshio Johnston, he film was funded by a grant from the\n  \n   California Civil Liberties Public Education Program\n  \n  .",
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            ],
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            ],
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                "Heroism - real and perceived"
            ],
            "rg_availability": [
                "Limited availability"
            ],
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        },
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            "id": "The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear was Stronger than Justice (curricula)",
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            "index": "24 24/{'value': 41, 'relation': 'eq'}",
            "links": {
                "html": "https://resourceguide.densho.org/The%20War%20Relocation%20Centers%20of%20World%20War%20II:%20When%20Fear%20was%20Stronger%20than%20Justice%20(curricula)/",
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            },
            "title": "The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear was Stronger than Justice (curricula)",
            "description": "This lesson for upper elementary and secondary students produced by the National Park Service centers on files from the National Register of Historic Places: \"\n  \n   Manzanar\n  \n  War Relocation Center\" and \"\n  \n   Rohwer\n  \n  Relocation Center Memorial Cemetery\". The lesson can be used in the study of World War II in U.S. History or human rights in a social studies unit. Links allow teachers to search for relevant curriculum standards by subject and grade level.",
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            ],
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